Sunday, August 20, 2017

Among all the occupational categories of professionals and technologists, the bar exam often had the highest number of people applying to take the exam. For example, in 1950 (total 5 occupational categories), 1961, 1971, 1983 (total 29 occupational categories), there were total 34, 474, 1886, 10319 persons applying to take exams for professionals and technologists, respectively, among which 25 (73%), 385(81%), 1087 (58%), 2088 (20%) persons applying to take the bar exam. (任拓書,1991: 160-163)
勞工退休金條例之年金保險-- 勞保年金 Annuity Insurance
依勞工退休金條例(以下簡稱本條例)第三十五條第三項及第三十七條規定訂定之。
2005 勞工退休金條例年金保險實施辦法
Regulations for the Implementation of Annuity Insurance under the Labor Pension Act
事業單位實施勞工退休金條例年金保險
2009 年1月實施「勞保年金」,台灣的社會安全體系正式邁向

Glocalization

global localization

Saturday, August 19, 2017

Ten Major Constructions." These included development of an island-wide highway, hydraulic and nuclear power plants, heavy industrial complexes, new or expanded harbors, tax-free industrial parks, and other projects related to the development of infrastructures necessary for an economic take-off

Friday, August 18, 2017

一九九二年修改修正刑法內亂罪規定之後,任何人將不再僅僅因為表達某種政治意見而遭到刑事制裁

高考分區錄取

一九五0年國民黨政府在臺灣重建司法系統時,一方面承受自舊中國湧入的素質良旁不齊的司法官,另方面在臺灣舉辦考試以招募新血﹒於一九五七至一九六九年係以「全國性高考」招募,'此種考試有「分區錄取」的規定,導致自日治以來已有唸法律傳統的本省人考生,受制於「臺灣省」「僅是全中國三十五省之一 .所能分配到名額相當有限,須分數很高才能被錄取,外省人考生卻因其所屬「省區」事實上在臺人數甚少,而得以持較低的分數被錄取。不過,自一九七0年以後,以及之前曾有幾年,係以「特考」方式辦理,使不受「分區錄取」限制,此有助於屬本省人者進入司法體系。然而不論經高考或特考, 考取者均須至司法官訓練所接受某程度的「黨化司法教育,'俾能傳承當中國的訓政時期司法經驗

違警罰法

在一九八0年的釋字第一六六號之前,亦不會發生根據憲法上人權規定而認為法律或命令違憲之例。甚至在釋字第一六六號中被指為不符憲法的違警罰法,繼續為警察機關所適用,以致一九九0年釋字第二五一號再指摘其違憲,應於一年後失效

constitution

清朝只公布未施行的1907「憲法大綱」與1911年十九信條
1912年施行的「中華民國臨時約法」
1914年施行的「中華民國約法( 世稱「袁氏約法 )
1924年施行的憲法(世稱曹錕憲法 )
1931年施行的「中華民國訓政時期約法」、
1936年公布的「中華民國憲法草案J (世稱「五五憲草 )
1946年制定並於隔年公布後施行的「中華民國憲法」
1948年制定的「動員戳亂臨時條款


王泰升, 臺灣憲法的故事,從「舊日本」與「當中國蛻變而成「新臺灣」
臺大法學論叢, 32(1), 2003
National Taiwan University Law Journal, 32(1), 2003
1-48

301條款

1984美國修改其"貿易關稅法" Trade and Tariffs Act, 將其原本強調的自由貿易 free trade精神, 改為公平貿易 fair trade, 使台灣直接面對301條款及取消普遍優惠關稅 generalized system of preferences, GSP 待遇等制裁性的威脅

1988美國公布其"綜合貿易及競爭力法" the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, 台灣更面對超級301與特別301的威脅

台灣被迫降低或取消各種關稅與非關稅性保護, 如, 1985 至1988, 降低關稅項目達7079項,
1986至1989, 新台幣被迫升值約50%, 導致股市與房地產飆漲, 並惡化生產環境與國際競爭力










democracy index

民主化之衡量指標
衡量民主化之指標主要來自Ted Gurr 所創建的Polity IV 資料庫,該資料庫廣為文獻採用作為衡量民主程度之指標7 並迭經修正與更新,目前可於系統性和平中心網站(Center for Systemic Peace)取得。

http://www.systemicpeace.org/

該指標係由民主指數(democracy index)減去獨裁指數(autocracy index)而得。前者數值介
於0 與10 之間,主要按照各國言論自由、對行政權之制衡與人身自由保障等正面因素,來衡量民主程度;
後者數值亦介於0 與10,但卻用來衡量專制的程度。前者減去後者所得到之POLITY 值,因而介於−10 與10 之間,POLITY數值愈大表示民主程度愈高或專制程度愈低

歐陽利姝, L. O., & 馬泰成, T.-c. M. (2013). 經濟成長與民主政治—臺灣的實證經驗, Economic Growth and Democracy: Some Empirical Evidence in Taiwan. 人文及社會科學集刊, 25(3), 485-524

經濟發展程度之指標, economic development measurement

平均每人GDP 的絕對水準(以下以INCOME 表示)作為衡量經濟發展程度之指標,而非經濟成長率。原因有三:
首先,Hall and Jones(1999)認為直接反映一國發展程度的指標是GDP 絕對水準,而非成長率。
其次,內生性成長文獻(例如:Romer, 1986; Rebelo, 1991)認為經濟政策可以影響一國經濟成長率之理論,近年來遭到許多文獻質疑,例如:Jones(1995)與Hall and Jones(1999)認為經濟政策僅能影響GDP 的絕對水準而非其成長率。
最後,由於國際貿易與跨國投資所造成之科技移轉效果,各國間所得水準之差異漸趨收斂。Parente and Prescott(1994)、Eaton and Kortum(1996)與Barro and Sala-i-Martin(1997)因而認為:在長期,所有國家均會以相同之速率成長,值得研究的課題應該是每人GDP 水準之高低,而非成長率。
因此,本文乃以INCOME 作為衡量經濟發展的指標。

歐陽利姝, L. O., & 馬泰成, T.-c. M. (2013). 經濟成長與民主政治—臺灣的實證經驗, Economic Growth and Democracy: Some Empirical Evidence in Taiwan. 人文及社會科學集刊, 25(3), 485-524
近代中国律师职业在国法层面的正当性, 直到清末正式颁行􀀁法院编制法( 1910 年)时才最终确立, 而专门颁布单行法
规对律师制度予以规范, 则更是迟至律师暂行章程于民国元年( 19 12 年)颁行之时

由修订法律大臣沈家本于光绪三十二年(19 06 ) 四月进呈的(大清刑事民事诉讼法草案中, 首次
在奏进朝廷的法律草案内出现了对律师制度的专门设计, 其第四章/刑事民事通用规则中的第一节名称即为/律师

以日本辩护士法为蓝本修订而成的律师暂行章程

律师职业在近代中国国法层面的正当性, 借助于19 10 年颁布的法院编制法终于得以确立, 但清
末四部诉讼法草案的共同命运, 也昭示了建立律师职业正当性的最初过程之艰辛

阴影下的正当性-- 清末民初的律师职业与律师制度
rule of law 依法行政
rule by law 依法統治
Wang's Chinese book translation
google book search: Legal Education in Asia: Globalization, Change and Contexts

Thursday, August 17, 2017

service industry

專業納入國家考試

1945(民國38年以前)
律師、會計師、醫師、藥師、助產士、技師、引水人

1945-1972(石油危機前)
1950s進口替代, 1960s出口擴張、國際貿易興盛, 1970s建設台灣、發展重化工業, 石油危機
建築師, 驗船師、報關人員, 獸醫師

1970年代是經濟起飛時期,國內各地大興土木,建築師及消防設備專業人士強烈需求
1970s末-1980s
經濟起飛, 發展策略性工業政策,提出十大新興工業與八大關鍵工業技術
消防設備師、消防設備士

1980年代是經濟過熱房地產飆漲時期(台灣房地產自1987年起一路狂飆,1989年攻頂後即衰退至今,普遍銷售狀況不佳),對土地相關人員專業的規範加強,以維持交易秩序更顯必要,如地政士(土地登記專業代理人)、不動產估價師、不動產經紀人皆是在此時期完成立法

1980s 末期-2000
1990年代社會福利議題成為社會關注焦點,心理師、社會工作師、物理治療
經濟過熱, 房地產狂飆, 1998股市上萬點
地政士(土地登記專業代理人), 不動產估價師, 不動產經紀人

1995以後
1997亞洲金融風暴
 社會福利佔政府預算分配比例大幅上揚,.網路(internet)興起,金融改革及衍生性金融商品
物理治療師、職能治療師、社會工作師、心理師、呼吸治療師

2000至今
知識經濟、服務經濟

證券業的證券投資分析人員、證券商高級業務員、證券商業務員,投信投顧業的投信投顧業務員、銀行業的銀行內部控制人員、信託業務人員、外匯人員、授信人員、理財規劃人員,保險業的壽險業務人員、產險業務人員等。各項專業人員受證券交易法、投信投顧法、信託業法、保險法等法規規範,其中除了保險代理人、保險經紀人、保險公證人

2003 年政府所公布的十大熱門行業包含:高科技產業、通訊服務業、金融服務業、生化醫療、大眾傳播、物流產業、休閒產業、教育服務、企業顧問服務業、創意型產業

organic skin care

http://www.senteurdoc.com.tw/

天和鮮物客服
87858986

天和鮮物, 北平東路
23516268 # 101, 102 詹先生

bar exam pass rate, Taiwan

在民國79年(1990)到89年(2000)間,專技高普考就曾採行以總成績60分及格,但若遇到及格率未達全程到考 人數16%時,得改以全程到考人數16%及格,但最低總成績仍須達50分。

92 年 (2003)迄99 年 (2010),考試院決定錄取全程到考人數8%為及格標準,乃係參酌前5 年及格率人數統計資料,取其平均數而定之
1987年,台灣解除戒嚴,同年,律師高考的錄取人數首度衝上百人大關,同年並訂定「律師檢覈辦法」明訂律師檢覈的標準,將過去浮濫檢覈的狀況予以逐步限縮

檢肅流氓條例

依檢肅流氓條例, 警察機關得逕行強制人民到案, 無須踐行必要之司法程序, 且警察機關認定為流氓並予以告誡之處分時, 人民除向內政部警政署聲明異議外, 不得提起訴願及行政訴訟

依刑事訴訟法, 檢察官有羈押被告之權

大法官會議384, 392號解釋, 引用憲法第八條有關人身自由保障之規定, 宣告前揭兩項法律規定為無效, 以申明處罰須經正當法律程序due process

檢肅流氓程序有違人權(釋三八四)

檢察官於刑事訴訟程序上應無羈押權(釋三九二)
「被偷的一代」(the stolen generation)
原指戰後澳大利亞白人政府,曾經將某些原住民族的小孩送給白人家庭養育,以使其斷絕與原住民族歷史文化間的紐帶,後來澳大利亞政府已為此滅絕文化的措施向原住民族道歉,但這個世代的原住民族已失去對民族固有文化的認知。在臺灣,於1990 年代之前,國民黨政
府的教育政策獨尊華語、禁止使用當地語言,且只講述民國時代中國的歷史、幾乎不談日治時期臺灣歷史,以致福佬、客家、原住民等族群在學校受教育的一代,不能理解或甚至鄙夷其上一代的語言文化。這等於是以國家制度性暴力,剝奪新生代了解其父母或祖父母的機會

Wednesday, August 16, 2017

左傳僖公28年: 訴訟代理人, 律師

第一次律師考試: 民國35年11月1日, 在光復未久的台灣省舉行
36年4月9日放榜, 只錄取一人


阮毅成. (1970). 二十年來之司法官與律師考試. 法令月刊, 21(10), 130-138.

Tuesday, August 15, 2017

law and development movement

law and development movement flourished briefly in the 1960s and early 1970s but was declared by two of its leading proponents to have been a failure by the mid-1970s, largely because its participants had over-estimated the importance of formal law and legal institutions in developing countries
 OEM (manufacture to specifications by purchasers)
 ODM (manufacture with a Taiwanese design contribution)
The ROC Code of Criminal Procedure of 1935 adopted the semi-inquisitorial method, except for the system of "preliminary investigation." The code treated procurators as "preliminary judges."
Thus, procurators had the power to summon, interrogate, search, or detain persons; and counsel was not allowed to assist the suspect during the investigation conducted by procurators. 84 In 1967, the code was renamed the Code of Criminal Procedure, but the basic structure of criminal trials remained intact. Not until 1982 was counsel allowed to be present while the police or procurator examined the suspect. In an attempt to resolve the problem of heavy caseloads in Taiwan's courts, the modifications in the 1990s strengthened the simplified judgment and further restricted the right to repeat appeals so as to expedite the proceedings.  After a century, the procurator's power to detain a suspect was finally held unconstitutional by the Grand Justices in 1995, and was later abolished by the Legislative Yuan in late 1997.
A key idea of liberalism is, “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” Liberalism regarding national identity would allow people to express their own identity, and require the government to tolerate different expressions of a national identity.

summary statistics of panel data.

city  v1  v2  v3  v4  v5  v6  v7  v8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Monday, August 14, 2017

reckless exploitation of natural resources in the past
because the goal of retaking the mainland remained an article of faith, Taiwanese economic bureaucrats until the 1980s could not publicize long-tern visions that did not include an eventual return to the mainland

Asia-Pacific regional operation center 亞太營運中心

In reacting to the issue of Hong Kong 1997, the government generated a plan to develop Taiwan into an Asia-Pacific regional operation center. The plan tries to take advantage of Taiwan's ideal geographic location in Southeast Asia, well-developed industrial base, integrated manufacturing sector, skilled labor force, managerial expertise, expanding domestic market, and increasing integration with the regional economy. The aim of the plan is to develop Taiwan into a regional center for high value-added manufacturing, sea and air transportation, and telecommunications, finance, media and other services
All sizable industrial establishments in Taiwan during the Japanese colonization were
taken over in 1945 by the Nationalist government. By 1946, they were reorganized and
consolidated into twenty-two state enterprises.

Yeh, J. R. (1996). Institutional Capacity-Building Toward Sustainable Development: Taiwan's Environmental Protection in the Climate of Economic Development and Political Liberalization. Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law, 6 229-272.

February 28, 1947, the 228 Incident

February 28, 1947, the 228 Incident
during which the Chinese police arrested, tortured and murdered Taiwanese elite. Such unrest and mutual distrust characterized the early years of nationalist control.

The "228 Incident" (so named because it ended on February 28, 1947) began when the
Chinese police killed a Taiwanese woman selling untaxed cigarettes, sparking island-wide unrest
and an ensuing government crackdown. Precise death tolls were never made public and, for
awhile, investigation into the incident was suppressed. For an unofficial account of the 228
incident, see LAI TSE-HAN ET AL., A TRAGIC BEGINNING: THE TAIWAN UPRISING OF
FEBRUARY 28,1947 (1991).

With the advent of political liberalization, however, the government
formed a task force to investigate the incident. This task force was responsible for erecting a
monument memorializing the incident and establishing a statutory compensation scheme for the
victims and their relatives.

the 228 Incident, in which the KMT military massacred thousands of native Taiwanese, or experienced the White Terror era that followed
the 1993 local election
the 1994 gubernatorial and mayoral election
1994 election for governor of Taiwan and mayors of Taipei and Kaohsiung municipalities

刑法100條, Article 100 of the Criminal Code, treason and sedition

 Student leaders and some leading intellectuals called for the abolition of the stringent measures on treason and sedition, Article 100 of the Criminal Code. Lee capitalized on the event by instructing the Executive Yuan to set up a special task force to review various revision proposals. This judicious move eventually led to a rewriting of Article 100 a year later, and thus removed a major legal obstacle to the advocacy of Taiwan independence.
1999成立智慧財產局
溫柔要有,但不是妥協,我們要在安靜中,不慌不忙的堅強。
- 《林徽音文集》

Pelly Amendment 與野生動物保育法

美國引用於 1978 年所修正的「培利修正案」,以台灣對涉瀕臨絕種犀牛及老虎保育不力為由,而自 83 年 (1994) 8 月 19 日開始施以貿易制裁

此項制裁於 84 年(1995) 6 月 30 日解除

美國在華盛頓公約組織的呼籲及美國國內環保團體的壓力下, 首度適用Pelly Amendment (Pelly Amendment to the Fishermen's Protective Act of 1967)

Pelly Amendment 19957月解除

Taiwan (together with China and Hong Kong) has been accused of being sluggish in cracking down illegal trade in the products of rhinoceros, tiger and other endangered species. In September 1993, the CITIES Standing Committee convened in Brussels, condemning China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan for their insufficient efforts in cracking down on illegal trade in rhinoceros and tiger products. CITIES also reiterated the need for further inspections and urged member states to impose available sanctions. The United States did impose trade sanctions on Taiwan according to the Pelly amendment. 22 U.S.C. section 1978 (West 1990 & Supp. 1994).
Facing consistent pressure from home and abroad, authorities have sped up crackdowns on 
smuggling wildlife products and proposed to tighten criminal sanctions on each violation by
revising the Wildlife Conservation Law. In addition, the Cabinet also set up an Interministerial 
Task Force for the Implementation of Wildlife Protection Regulations.

Taiwan has never signed a regional or international environmental treaty, but has been subject to their provisions. For example, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species ("CITES")
condemned Taiwan for its failure to curb the smuggling of rhino horns and tiger parts and urged member states to impose sanctions through domestic powers, resulting in trade sanctions imposed by the Clinton Administration. Taiwanese authorities felt this sanction was unreasonable, but had no recourse. Had Taiwan been a member of GATT, it could have brought the sanctions before a GAIT dispute resolution panel as was done in the U.S./Mexico Dolphin controversy.

The CITES sanctions taught Taiwan that it could be subject to international environmental laws which it neither signed nor participated in drafting. As a result, Premier Lien Chen established the
Policy Guidance Task Force for Global Change which was composed of relevant ministers and environmental scholars. The Task Force set up five working groups to help implement global environmental agreements such as the 1987 Montreal Protocol, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, and the 1992 Biodiversity Convention. One of the very first resolutions by the Task Force was an official policy guideline for matters of global environmental protection.

Sunday, August 13, 2017

國立生活美學館 national living art center

2008 (民國97) 國立生活美學館組織準則
2011(民國100) 國立生活美學館辦事細則


國立臺南生活美學館
國立彰化生活美學館
國立新竹生活美學館
國立臺東生活美學館



國家人權博物館National Human Rights Museum

https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%9C%8B%E5%AE%B6%E4%BA%BA%E6%AC%8A%E5%8D%9A%E7%89%A9%E9%A4%A8

http://www.nhrm.gov.tw/home

Transitional justice, 轉型正義

Transitional justice consists of judicial and non-judicial measures implemented in order to redress legacies of human rights abuses.

行政院國家資通安全會報技術服務中心National Center for Cyber Security Technology

國家資通安全技術服務中心  National Center for Cyber Security Technology
成立日期 2001年3月
90年3月 成立行政院國家資通安全會報技術服務中心
行政院於 90 年 1 月第 2718 次院會核定通過第一期「建立我國通資訊基礎建設安全機制計畫」(90 年至 93 年),並成立「行政院國家資通安全會報」(以下簡稱資安會報),於同年3月規劃成立「國家資通安全技術服務中心」(以下簡稱技服中心)

行政院於105年8月1日成立資通安全處(以下簡稱行政院資安處),

國家實驗研究院(National Applied Research Laboratories, NARLabs)

簡稱國研院,成立於2003年6月

國研院現設有之實驗研究中心如下:

國家晶片系統設計中心 National Chip Implementation Center (CIC)
儀器科技研究中心 Instrument Technology Research Center (ITRC)
國家高速網路與計算中心 National Center for High-performance Computing (NCHC)
國家地震工程研究中心 National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE)
國家奈米元件實驗室 National Nano Device Laboratories (NDL)
國家實驗動物中心 National Laboratory Animal Center (NLAC)
國家太空中心 National Space Organization (NSPO)
科技政策研究與資訊中心 Science & Technology Policy Research and Information Center (STPI)
台灣海洋科技研究中心 Taiwan Ocean Research Institute (TORI)
台灣颱風洪水研究中心 Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute (TTFRI)

The NARLabs consists of

National Chip Implementation Center (CIC)
Instrument Technology Research Center (ITRC)
National Center for High-performance Computing (NCHC)
National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE)
National Nano Device Laboratories (NDL)
National Laboratory Animal Center (NLAC)
National Space Organization (NSPO)
Science & Technology Policy Research and Information Center (STPI)
Taiwan Ocean Research Institute (TORI)
Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute (TTFRI)

衛生福利部Ministry of Health and Welfare

1928年4月,國民政府內政部成立衛生司。11月,升格為衛生部。
1935年4月,衛生部併入內政部,成為內政部衛生署。
1936年11月,升格為行政院直屬機關,成為行政院衛生署。
1938年4月,再次改組為內政部衛生署。
1940年4月,再次改組為行政院衛生署。
1947年5月,國民政府改組為中華民國政府,行政院衛生署再次改組為衛生部。
1949年5月,改為內政部衛生署。8月,再縮編成為內政部衛生司。
1971年3月17日,改組為行政院衛生署
1995年元旦,配合全民健康保險即將實施,中央健康保險局(今中央健康保險署)成立。

2013年5月31日,依照政府組織再造規劃,立法院三讀通過《衛生福利部組織法》和相關組織法[2],並於同年6月19日公告施行[3]。7月23日,改組升格為衛生福利部[4],成為中華民國政府遷臺後第二個新組成的部,

2017年4月12日,成立少子化辦公室,目標將目前的生育率1.1人提升至1.6~2.1人
https://udn.com/news/story/6656/2398198

Saturday, August 12, 2017

has yet to do sth

used for saying that something has not happened or been done up to the present time, especially when you think it should have happened or been done

The Scottish Office has yet to make a formal announcement.

The film, starring Robert Carlyle, has yet to open in the Far East.

The group has yet to find a replacement for the director who left in September.
In 1945, after the defeat and surrender of Japan at the end of World War II, Taiwan was returned to ROC and governed under Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China for the Period of Political Tutelage (1931-1946).
Beiyang army led by Yuan Shikai, a general of the imperial Qing government, controlled the national government in Beijing from 1912 to 1928 and reinstated monarchy in China (Empire of China, 1915–1916). After Yuan’s death in 1916, the country was divided and controlled by military cliques from 1916 to 1928 (the Warlord Era). In 1949, KMT government retreated to Taiwan after losing the Chinese civil war.
民國32年, 簽訂中英平等新約, 中美平等新約, 英美等國放棄領事裁判權
展恆舉. (1973).

保險業

自民國七十六年起,先是開放外國保險公司進入台灣保險市場

,並於八十一年開放本國新保險公司之設立
民國八十一年保險法修正,頒布「保險公司設立標準」,開放國人新設保險公司

民國八十三年(1994)公布「外國保險業許可標準及管搜辦理」,全面開放外商設立分公同

民國八十五年修正保險公司設立標準,准外商設立子公司經營保險業務。

1990s,

放寬外國銀行設立分行及代表人辦事處之條件,並刪除外國銀行增設分行之家數與地點限制(1994 年)
修正「電信法」1996 年:依序開放民間業者參與各項電信業務,開啟臺灣電信市場的新紀元。
成立專業外匯經紀商(1994 年)。
開放外國券商來台設立分公司,開放外國專業投資機構投資我國股市(1990 年)
重新開放外人投資新設商業銀行,放寬外商設立分行資格(1994 年)
開放外商保險公司來台設立子公司,開放美國以外保險公司來台設分公司(1994 年)
允許世界500 大以內國際知名銀行直接來我國設立國際金融業務分行(OBU)(1995 年)

 (1987 年):開放國內航空事業。
公布實施「民用航空運輸業管理規則」修正要點(1989年):開放國際航線,長榮航空獲准設立

1989年7月,修訂「銀行法」,銀行利率自由化

1988 證券商設置標準Standards Governing the Establishment of Securities Firms
1988  證券商管理規則 Regulations Governing Securities Firms

修正銀行法1989, 開放民間設立銀行
1989銀行法修正, 故自1991, 開於16家民營銀行設立

2000利率完全自由化, 開放民營銀行設立


台灣滙率史

台灣在第二次世界大戰結束後,於 1945 年 10 月回歸中華民國
隨後國民政府於 1949 年遷台
迄 1953 年止,台灣由於諸多原因,經 歷了一段惡性通貨膨脹的時期
新台幣是在 1949 年 6 月開始發行,初 期雖將新台幣與美元的兌換率訂為 1 美元兌 5 元新台幣,但由於外匯 嚴重短缺,除了對外匯運用嚴予管理,在1949, 6 月 15 日省政府宣布由舊台 幣改為新台幣之幣制改革時,同時採行了結匯證制度。

政府終於在 1950 年 12 月放棄 自由結匯辦法,改採外匯審核制度;接續在 1951 年 4 月進行外匯改革。

1951 年 4 月採行的外匯改革,將官定匯率提高為 1 美元兌 NT$10.30,並採用複式匯率。
政府復於 1951 年 7 月 10 日訂頒〈進口物品結匯審核標準〉,除了 規定進口結匯之申請必須經過當局逐件審查之程序外,且對各項進出口依進口品的相對重要性與出口品的相對競爭力,予以適用不同的結匯證 匯率。此一新作法使得原僅為雙元的複式匯率,變成了多元的複式匯 率。

1955 年 2 月行政院成立外匯貿易審議委員會(簡稱「外貿會」), 將外匯貿易管理業務收回由行政院統籌,並制定 1 美元等於 NT$15.60 的基本匯價。

1958 年 4 月外貿會頒布〈改進外匯貿易方案〉,將多元 複式匯率簡化為雙元複式匯率。

1958年公布「改進外匯貿易方案」,恢復單一匯率,
在1958年4月採行外匯貿易改革方案,以實施單一匯率為目標,

1961年6月1日——臺灣正式實施單一匯率,新臺幣對美元官價匯率為40:1
1961 年 6 月 1 日 官價美元匯率改訂為買賣均為台幣四十元,為我國近年來實行單一匯率之始。

1963 年 9 月 ,將新台幣與美元的官定匯率定為 1 美元兌 NT$40,同時取消結匯證制度,回歸單純的單一固定匯率制度

台灣自 1963 年 9 月起,進入釘住美元的固定匯率時期。初期將匯 率訂為 1 美元可兌換 40 元新台幣,此一匯率水準對台灣出口產品的國 際競爭力有顯著提高的作用。

我國自 1978 年 7 月採取管理浮動匯率制度
1978年7月,匯率制度由固定匯率改為機動匯率
 台灣在1978年由釘住美元的固定匯率,改為採行機動匯率制度,也就是學術界習稱的管理浮動匯率制度
1978年7月11日財政部宣布,基本匯率由38元新台幣兌1美元, ... 同時放棄釘住美元之固定匯率,改採機動匯率
1978年7月,匯率制度由固定匯率改為機動匯率;

我國外匯市場自民國六十八年成立以來,68年2月成立
1979年2月我國成立外匯市場

1979, 民68年2月外匯市場成立,新台幣匯率由中央銀行代表與5家指定銀行決定,廢除緊盯美元的固定匯率,改採機動匯率,自此以後,新台幣再次呈現貶值趨勢
68年(1979年)改採「機動匯率」,建立外匯市場



Friday, August 11, 2017

Taiwan Legal Research Guide

http://www.nyulawglobal.org/globalex/Taiwan.html#I

廣設大學, 教育改革, 大學自主

1987年台灣解除長達三十多年的戒嚴,在政治體制的轉型下,社會風氣隨著民主開放,社會各界紛紛提出改革訴求;在教育方面,民間教改團體也陸續成立,為當時的教育問題提出建言。自此,台灣的教育開始進入風起雲湧的階段。

1994年四一○教改聯盟提出「廣設高中、大學」的口號
1996年教改會也予以呼應
1996 年開始開放大學設立
1996年吳京上任教育部長,提出「第二國道」的構想,要大量升格公私立技職專校

1995年8月9日,總統公布《教師法》,將教師權力制度化,基本精神為確立公教分途原則、保障教師工作權益、提升教師專業自主、增進學校校園民主,確立了教師資格取得與教師任用方式,並明定教師權利義務、規範教師解聘、停聘與不續聘之條件。《教師法》使教師的權益獲得法律的保障,促進教師專業的有效提升,校園民主化,打破以往校務由校長一人主導的情況。

1999年6月23日,總統公布《教育基本法》,規定人民是教育的主體,教育權由中央下放至地方,國民教育得視社會發展延長年限,保障弱勢族群受教權,鼓勵私人興學,得將公立學校委託私人辦理。此為台灣教育改革史上的大事,由於其效力遠大於其他教育法律,可說是一切教育法規的根本大法,因此對整體教育有極為深遠的影響。

由教育部統一訂定各學院科系共同科目表與課程標準之形式, 直至1995年釋字380號解釋, 宣告"大學法施行細則"第22條後段等相關規定不合大學自治精, 違反憲法, 才透過大學法的等法規的修訂,放鬆管制

1994修正大學法強調大學學術自由與自治
在1994年之前,也就是<大學法>重新修訂之前,我國大學運作的典章及規則都是由教育部所訂定,包括核准大學的設立,決定系、所、院的成立及增減,指派公立大學的校長(私立大學則是由董事會提請教育部核聘),核定招生人數,審查教師資格,規定大學共同必修科目與系所必修課程等等;可見教育部對大學的管轄範疇相當廣泛而深入,大學本身並無太多的自主空間。更重要的是,公立大學的人員編制與經費使用受到國家法規約束,會計及人事室主管都是由教育部派任並受教育部考評。總之,當時政府對大學設限較多,此舉固然讓台灣的高等教育維持了一定的水準,但也扼殺了大學自主發展的空間,以致各大學始終無法發揮自身特色,遑論追求卓越。

1994年修訂的新<大學法>,強調學術自由與大學自治,規定大學在法律範圍內享有一定之自治權。政府對大學的管制做了相當程度的鬆綁,舉凡課程規劃、招生、教師聘任等權限均逐漸回歸大學自主;公立大學校長也不再由教育部指派,而是先經由學校遴選程序產生候選人之後,再由教育部組成遴選委員會遴選出最後人選,私立大學則是由董事會組織遴選委員會推薦人選,經董事會圈選後,由教育部核聘。

1994 新大學法, 保障大學學術自由, 與大學自治精神

講學自由,認為教育部未經大學法授權自不得為有關大學共同必修科目的規定(釋380)

大學法中應設軍訓室之強制規定因不符大學自治之旨而違憲(釋四五0)




After receiving their bachelor degrees in law, these students can take the national exams to become lawyers, judges, or public prosecutors, respectively.

There are two different kinds of national examinations. (1) People need to pass the judicial examination to become judges or prosecutors. Judges and prosecutors are civil servants. (2) People need to pass the bar exam to be licensed as lawyers. 
training.  

The national exam for the selection of judges or public prosecutors (the Judicial Officer Exam) is separate from the exam for licensing lawyers (the bar exam); the pre-practice training for those who pass the two exams is separate as well. 

Individuals who pass the judicial exam enter the Judges and Prosecutors Training Institute for pre-practice training.32 At the end of that training, they must qualify to become judges or prosecutors. 

Other individuals who pass the bar exam enter the Lawyers Training Institute. The training for judges and prosecutors takes as much as two years and trainees are considered public servants, receiving an allowance during their training period. the free training provided by the Lawyer Training Institute lasts only one month and offers no on-site practice.Trainees are not considered public servants and receive no allowance. In addition to the training, a five- month apprenticeship under the supervision of a senior attorney who has practiced for more than five years is required before a student may join a local bar.However, unlike the trainees in the Judges and Prosecutors Training Institute, prospective lawyers must locate supervisors themselves. In the wake of the 2008 economic recession, the increased numbers of lawyers and a decline in the number of apprenticeship opportunities have made it more difficult for trainee lawyers to find supervisors. The reason behind the separation of training tracks for judicial officers and lawyers is that a government subsidy to train lawyers is considered inappropriate because lawyers primarily pursue the interests their clients and not the public. Chen, T. C.-h. (2012).
Most books published in 1930s and 1940s (包含眾多與中華民國法律有關的書籍), 未被帶到台灣; 1950s前期, 沒有華文教科書, 教師自編. 自印講義, 看日文法律書籍, 法律實務者, 法官, 提筆寫書, 用來教書
王泰升. (2012). 四個世代形塑而成的戰後台灣法學


legal market

corporate legal departments

bar exam cram schools

judges be appointed from among practicing attorneys
responsive judiciary

reducing the number of lawyers in the profession increase the opportunities for cartel behavior
 limiting the number of lawyers in the profession
entry barriers injure consumers by impeding competition in the delivery of legal services
limiting entry into the profession for the purpose of self-aggrandizement licensure 

assist the public in meeting their needs for legal services 

The severe limitations on membership in the ROC legal profession may likewise evidence an official commitment to discourage reliance on dispute resolution by dispute litigation and encourage reliance on informal dispute resolution techniques that are more amenable to elite control.

demand for lawyers

 the extreme paucity of lawyers seems best explained as resulting from political choices to limit lawyers’ social role and influence, 




Thursday, August 10, 2017

papers, 2017


  • positive law
  • gender representative bureaucracy
  • civil service different provinces

lawyers were regarded as “social engineer” in the law and development
see optimistic, pessimistic paper

the bar examination permeates and controls fundamental aspects of legal education at law schools across the country

Governing elites saw law as a tool with which to control their societies, and with which to exert political control over their judiciaries


allowed people with law-related college degrees and law-related working experience to be licensed as lawyers, through full exemption from examination or partial exemption from examination.

Required working experience for partial exemption from examination includes (1) faculty of law: assistant professor for 5 years, associate professor for 3 years, professor for 2 years, and (2) military judges for 6 years.

Required working experience for full exemption from examination includes (1) judges, prosecutors, and (2) public defender for 6 years.

Regulations on Attorney Examination of 1941 were repealed in 2006 because critics say many people were licensed as lawyers without passing bar exams.


1992年修改律師法, 要求律師高考及格者, 須經職前訓練6個月, 始可執業

1947, 228事件, 很多台灣律師遭殺害 (王泰升,2002)



 The low passage rate before the 1980s was mainly due to two reasons:
(1) Ministry of Examination tried to make qualification standards consistent across various occupation categories because bar exams were held together with exams for other professionals and technologists.
(2) The process of trial and error to find the right passing rate.

After the 1980s, passing rates became higher due to two reasons:
(1) political liberalization and democratization in Taiwan, e.g. forming of the first opposition party DPP in 1986, terminating martial law and lifting bans on political parties and newspaper publications in 1987, presidential election by universal suffrage in 1996, citizens require higher passage rates to enter the bar.
(2) rapidly increasing undergraduate law departments, graduate law schools, and thus more students enter the job market and need to find jobs.

Therefore, in 1990, Ministry of Examination raised the passing rate to 16%, based on normal distribution/Tscore .  

一九八七年解嚴後,隨著民主意識日漸抬頭,尤其是八九年(2000)律師特考,二千多人應試,錄取二百八十八名,「這個比前面六、七年累積上榜的人數還多,令人士氣大 振。隔年錄取二百九十名,再下一年三百六十三名,再加上聯考熱門科系起了連帶效應,台大法律系開始取代國貿系,成了考生的第一志願。歷經四十年悲情歲月的法律系,終於嗅到了出頭天的滋味。」林敏生這樣說。
Among all the occupational categories of professionals and technologists, the bar exam often had the highest number of people applying to take the exam. For example, in 1950, there were total 34 persons who applied to take exams for professionals and technologists (5 occupational categories in that year), among which 25 persons applied to take the bar exam (73%). In 1961, there were total 474 persons who applied to take exams for professionals and technologists, among which 385 persons applied to take the bar exam (81%). In 1971, there were total 1886 persons who applied to took exams for professionals and technologists, among which 1087 persons applied to take the bar exam (58%). In 1983, there were total 10,319 persons who applied to take exams for professionals and technologists (29 occupational categories in that year), among which 2,088 persons applied to take the bar exam (20%).(任拓書,p160-163)

Wednesday, August 09, 2017

Beiyang government, bar exam

1912(民國元年) 北洋政府(in 北京) 公布律師暫行章程, 由司法部公布
民國10, 公布" 甄拔律師委員會章程", 明定經甄拔合格者, 得充律師

南京國民政府
1927, 民國16國民政府司法部, 公布"律師章程""甄拔律師委員會章程"
北京政府之前所公布之律師暫行章程, 當然廢止

1928國民政府取代北洋政府

北洋政府, 1912-1928
The Republic of China was established in 1911 by the Nationalist government (KMT). Beiyang army led by Yuan Shikai, a general of the imperial Qing government, controlled the national government in Beijing from 1912 to 1928 and reinstated monarchy in China (Empire of China, 1915–1916). After Yuan’s death in 1916, the country was divided and controlled by military cliques from 1916 to 1928 (the Warlord Era). In 1949, KMT government retreated to Taiwan after losing the Chinese civil war.

民國31, 律師法公布施行--之前之律師章程及甄拔律師委員會章程, 均告廢止
民國34, 律師法修正, 立法委員3年以上者, 得檢覈免試
民國51, 律師法修正, 軍法官考試及格者, 得檢覈免試

展恆舉. (1973)

*****
1945修改律師法, 曾任立委3年者,可申請檢覈

****
1941律師法取代律師章程, 1945經過修改, 並隨著國民政府接收台灣, 取代1935 Taiwan Attorney Regulations, 成為施行於台灣的律師法制基本法
1997年透過修正, 使公設辯護人亦得檢覈為律師
王泰升, & 曾文亮 (Eds.). (2005). 二十世紀台北律師公會會史. 台北: 台北律師公會.

1945年修正之律師法, 由大陸帶到台灣適用; 尤英夫, Y., Ying Fu. (1996). 台灣律師制度一百年


1992律師法重新修正公布全文, 增訂律師使用---保障人權等; 須經職前訓練合格尤英夫, Y., Ying Fu. (1996)

**********
Before the Constitution of the Republic of China was promulgated in 1947, from 1928 to 1946, congressmen were selected by the government. After 1947, according to the ROC Constitution, congressmen had to be selected through elections. Many congressmen selected by the government before 1947 worried they might be not elected through elections, they added into the Attorney Regulation Act that at least 3 year work experience as congressmen could be waived from taking the bar exam to become lawyers (尤英夫, 93-94). After KMT government retreated to Taiwan in 1949, many congressmen were waived from taking the bar exams and became lawyers (尤英夫, 1972: 94)

曾任立法委員3年以上, 不再列為應檢覈資格, 民國62年修正律師法 (任拓書, 89)

律師訓練

 training under a senior lawyer (called Pupillage /Apprenticeship/ Intern-ship /Training)

Tuesday, August 08, 2017

中華民國105年8月10日
華總一義字第10500091191號
茲制定政黨及其附隨組織不當取得財產處理條例,公布之。
Act Governing the Settlement of Ill-gotten Properties by Political Parties and Their Affiliate Organizations

衍生性金融商品 Financial Derivatives

2015 銀行辦理衍生性金融商品業務內部作業制度及程序管理辦法 Regulations Governing Internal Operating Systems and Procedures for Banks Conducting Financial Derivatives Business

公約施行法

2009  公民與政治權利國際公約及經濟社會文化權利國際公約施行法
2011  消除對婦女一切形式歧視公約施行法
2014  身心障礙者權利公約施行法

2014  兒童權利公約施行法

2015  聯合國反貪腐公約施行法
2010  金融機構接管辦法
2010  金融機構監管辦法

電子票證 Electronic Stored Value Cards

2009 電子票證發行管理條例

勞工退休金條例之年金保險-- 勞保年金 Annuity Insurance

依勞工退休金條例(以下簡稱本條例)第三十五條第三項及第三十七條規定訂定之。

2005 勞工退休金條例年金保險實施辦法
Regulations for the Implementation of Annuity Insurance under the Labor Pension Act 

事業單位實施勞工退休金條例年金保險

2009 1月實施「勞保年金」,台灣的社會安全體系正式邁向「雙年金保險制度」新里程。

金融監督

金融監督管理委員會銀行局(簡稱銀行局)是中華民國銀行業、信託業、信用卡、電子票證發行機構與電子支付機構及金融控股公司的主管機關,由前財政部金融局改制而來。

1981年,財政部成立「金融司」。

1991年,升格為「財政部金融局」,原金融司保險科升格為保險司(今金管會保險局)。
 財政部金融局組織條例 (1991), establish Monetary Affairs Bureau (1991)

2003 金融監督管理委員會組織法 Organic Act Governing the Establishment of the Financial Supervisory Commission

2004 , 民國93年7月1日起新設「行政院金融監督管理委員會」(簡稱金管會),以實踐金融監理一元化目標。
2004年,行政院金融監督管理委員會成立後改隸屬為其單位,更名為「行政院金融監督管理委員會銀行局」。
2004 正式成立「行政院金融監督管理委員會」Financial Supervisory Commission, 9371日起新設「行政院金融監督管理委員會」(簡稱金管會),以實踐金融監理一元化目標。

2012年7月,更名為「金融監督管理委員會銀行局」。

2017年,財政部與金管會達成共識,金管會金融局裁併後,更名為「財政部財政金融局」,繼續承接業務。

Foreign Exchange

2003  外匯經紀商管理辦法Regulations Governing Foreign Exchange Brokers
2003 銀行業辦理外匯業務管理辦法Regulations Governing Foreign Exchange Business of Banking Enterprises

金融債券Bank Debentures

2000 銀行發行金融債券辦法Regulations Governing Issuance of Bank Debentures by Banks

證券投資信託 Securities Investment Trust

2004 證券投資信託及顧問法 Securities Investment Trust and Consulting Act 

2004 證券投資信託事業設置標準 Standards Governing the Establishment of Securities Investment Trust Enterprises

2004 證券投資信託事業募集證券投資信託基金處理準則Regulations Governing the Public Offering of Securities Investment Trust Funds by Securities Investment Trust Enterprises

2004  證券投資信託事業管理規則 Regulations Governing Securities Investment Trust Enterprises

2004  證券投資信託事業證券投資顧問事業經營全權委託投資業務管理辦法Regulations Governing the Conduct of Discretionary Investment Business by Securities Investment Trust Enterprises and Securities Investment Consulting Enterprises

2004  證券投資信託事業負責人與業務人員管理規則Regulations Governing Responsible Persons and Associated Persons of Securities Investment Trust Enterprises

2004  證券投資信託基金管理辦法Regulations Governing Securities Investment Trust Funds


票券金融 Bills Finance

2001 票券金融管理法  Act Governing Bills Finance Business
2002 票券金融公司設立標準  Standards Governing the Establishment of Bills Finance Companies

culture and art institution

國家人權博物館
國立臺灣文學館
國立臺灣交響樂團
財團法人原住民族文化事業基金會設置條例Establishment of the Indigenous Peoples Cultural Foundation
國立臺灣工藝研究發展中心
國立臺灣史前文化博物館
國立臺灣美術館
國立臺灣博物館
國立臺灣歷史博物館
國家臺灣文學館

2008 財團法人原住民族文化事業基金會設置條例

2008 國立生活美學館組織準則

2011  國立國父紀念館組織法
2011  國立傳統藝術中心組織法, 國立傳統藝術中心(以下簡稱傳藝中心)原成立於民國911月,為文化部(前身為文建會)之附屬機構
2011  國立臺灣工藝研究發展中心組織法
2011  國立臺灣史前文化博物館組織法
2011  國立臺灣美術館組織法
2011  國立臺灣博物館組織法
2011  國立歷史博物館組織法


2012  國立公共資訊圖書館組織法
2012  國立自然科學博物館組織法
2012國立科學工藝博物館組織法
2012  國立海洋生物博物館組織法
2012 國立教育廣播電臺組織法
2012 國立臺灣科學教育館組織法
2012  國立臺灣圖書館組織法

2012 國家圖書館組織法


2014   國家運動訓練中心設置條例
2014  國家表演藝術中心設置條例

2014 國立海洋科技博物館組織法