Tuesday, May 22, 2018


Monday, May 21, 2018


有的人努力地尋求連結, 以免失去連結後, 只剩下自己 (空洞的自我)
有的人努力地避開連結, 以免取得連結後, 失去了自己 (真正的自我)
你所追尋的未來美好, 從未到達
最美的, 已經過去
"Be like water making its way through cracks. Do not be assertive, but adjust to the object, and you shall find a way around or through it. If nothing within you stays rigid, outward things will disclose themselves.

Empty your mind, be formless. Shapeless, like water. If you put water into a cup, it becomes the cup. You put water into a bottle and it becomes the bottle. You put it in a teapot, it becomes the teapot. Now, water can flow or it can crash. Be water, my friend."

Sunday, May 20, 2018

(Miller & Cook-Greuter, 1994).

Miller, M., & Cook-Greuter, S. (1994). From postconventional
development to transcendence: Visions and theories. In M.
Miller & S. Cook-Greuter (Eds.), Mature thought and transcendence
in adulthood: The further reaches of adult development
(pp. xv-xxxii). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Saturday, May 19, 2018

Wednesday, May 16, 2018

Unitary consciousness and the highest development of mind: The relation between spiritual development and cognitive development
H Koplowitz - Adult development

theories of consciousness and self development, stage of consciousness, stage of self development

stages of consciousness or self development underlying all other aspects of development, cognitive, affective, moral

Postformal hierarchical stages of self development that are based in Representational process

  • the self can only be known indirectly as an object of abstract thought process (the me)
  • the self is still constructed through the abstract thought process/operations
1. Souvaine, Lahey, Kegan
  • qualitative changes in the subject-object relationship that underlie growth across several developmental domains
  • equilibrations of the self
  • "deep structure" underlying cognitive, moral and ego development = sequential equilibria of the "living" subject-object relationship
  • distinction between (1) the self's principle of organization (the self's way of knowing), the subject if embedded within and identified with the organizing principle (the cognitive structure)(2) that which gets organized (the object is that which gets organized)
  • a new stage arises when the subjective pole undergoes differentiation through de-embedding the self from the organizing structure ---  the self, standing outside the cognitive structure, can systematically organize these cognitive structures and render them as objects
  • the basic mechanism of development is the resolution of crises of meaning through a de-embedded process
  • formal operations arise when the self acts through hypothetico-deductive structure
  • institutional self: the self is the administrator of a closed system of self-defined and self-regulated goals ---- the self is a sealed system and can't reflect upon and alter its self-selected values and purposes
  • a transition in the self-object balance begins as the self, through extensive social interaction, recognizes the limitations of the institutional self ---- a highly equilibrated interindividual self can be attained 

2. Pascual-Leone

  • further enrich our understanding of the self by drawing upon the insights of the existential-phenomenological tradition of western philosophy--- Max Scheler (existential phenomenology and creative-spiritual intelligence/personal spirit) and Karl Jaspers (existential self development, stages of existential awareness)
  • higher stages of consciousness in which an inherent (not constructed) underlying self can be directly experienced (as the I of awareness) without conceptual mediation 
  • schematic structure will be transformed only when resistances are encountered that necessitate expenditure of effort in the direction of new accommodation
  •  adult self development is not based on increase in mental capacities, but on the degeneration of mental capacities---- serve as a major resistance that can stimulate structural remodeling
  • transitions in adulthood can be partially explained as reactions to progressive difficulty in mobilizing mental energy
  • the main structural changes in adulthood occur through mental effort and "mental macro-decentrations"--- through such decentration, adult can develop higher modes of consiousness, each associated with a higher level of ego development
  • Ego strutures are developed by means of mental effort and as a result of encompassing mental macro-decentrations (attentional expansions from the present/here and now toward both the relevant future and past, so as to recall the complex and time-deep structures that are relevant to the knowing of the current situation)
  • three main categories of ego structure: self strucure, other structure (represent other perons), world structure (which code the environment in terms of objects that are important to the self)
  • other and world structure create or constitute the ego-milieu (the subject's conscious life-world)
  • ego-cognitive structure: subordinate ego structure that interrelate self structure with world structure
  • conscious collective strucure: interrelate self strucure with other structure and with the world
  • the higher ego are optional, for most people, the ordinary adult ego structure remains unchanged---the phenomenological ego, the product of interpersonal interaction
  • transcendental ego (ultraself) that some adults develop is structured solely in terms of internal interactions  (e.g., coping with internal conflicts)
  • the ultraself (transcendental ego structure) has four successive levels, four ultral-self modes of control or forms of existential awareness or mode of processing
  1. Late-formal or exisential-self stage: empirical existence (modes of control or forms of existential awareness), arise in the late formal period, age 17-25
  2. Predialectical or duality-self stage: conceputal existence (mode of processing), develop between 25-35, in response to growing awareness of both intra- and interpersonal interaction
  3. Dialectical or Trinity-self stage: temporal existence (mode of processing) (35-40): a new prcessing mode arises becasue (1) not enough mental energy to sustain the current usage of the conceputal mode, (2) conceutal models now appear too idealized and static in light of the dynamic texture of reality;   Dialectical, apprehend pattterns of contradictory interacting theories, yielding appreciaton of totalities in evolution; incommensurable and pragmatically contradictory with the preceding three, thus a nonintegrated coordination of three "partial ultraselves"
  4. Transcendental or Quaternity-self: after age 55 or 60, realized self (quaternity self, transcendental self): transcendental operations, mediative thining (in which dialectical operations are performed upon dialectical operations), meditative existence (mode of processing)

Vedic psychology, post-representational higher stages of consciousness to hierarchically integrate all prior representational processes

Vedic science’s theory of human development

7 states of human consciousness

  • 1-3 are familiar experiences of every individual 
  • 4-7 are higher states
  • the 4th,  tanscendental consciousness, is central because repeated experience of it cultures the   physiology and gives rise to the subsequent states
  • Human developement is a U-shaped funtion, first developing inwardly until transcendental consciousness in reaching, then developing outwardly as it brings the qualities of transcendental consciousness into all levels of mind and activity.

1. Deep sleep state: no experience of self or environment, no self-referral
2. Dreaming state: illusory exerience of self or environment, very limited self-referral
3. Waking state: experience of excited levels of mental acticity and the surface value of the 
    environment. The true nature of the self as tanscendental consciousness is obscured by the active 
    levels of thought and percepton. Self-referral awareness is fragmental and experienced as knower,
    known, and process of knowing. Awareness becomes localized or conditioned by the active 
    processes of mind and corresponding stuctures of the nervous system. The knower perceives 
    objects of experience as external and separate from himself. The individual self is experienced as 
    localized or bound in time and space. The self/the knower is experienced as localized in time and         space and separated from the known by active processes of knowing (perceptions, thoughts, 
      feelings) which filter or qualify one's experience of self and world.
    The status of the self experienced is the small or lower self
    Lower self is that aspects of the personality which deals only with the relative aspect of existence. 
    It comprises the mind that thinks, the intellect that decides, the ego that experiences. This lower
    self functions only in the relative states of existence, waking, dreaming, and deep sleep.  The 
     knower knows himself only directly through the active states of feeling, thinking, and perceiving.
     Lower self= individual pshche the feels, thinks, perceives, and acts

Higher states of consciousness
4. Transcendental consciousness (=Self):  the least excited state of mental activity, least excitation 
      of consciousness, pure consciousness, the source of thought, the simplest form of awareness; 
     Thought and perception are transcended.  Knower,  known, and process of knowing converge into 
      one wholeness of pure consciousness. Devoid of difference, beyond the division of subject and 
      object. Transcendental consciousness is the most basic ground state of mental activity, not bound 
      by any thoughts or perceptions. A state of clear inner wakefulness in which the knower, process 
      of knowing, and known are experienced as one undifferentiated, unified field of consciousness; 
     The Self is realized as an unbounded unified field or pure consciousness at the basis of the 
      individual psyche.   The higher Self is that aspects of the personality which never changes, 
      absolute being (pure consciousness), the very basis of the entire field of relativity, including the 
      lower self.  Transcendental consciousness= a unified field of consciousness, field of pure 
      consciousness; transcendental consciousness, the cosmic psyche, at the basis of the individual 
     psyche. Knower=Self= the ultimate status of the knower is the cosmic psyche; underlying unified 
     field of consciousness, the cosmic psyche; tanscendental field of consciousness=cosmic psyche= 
      at the basis of individual thoughts and feelings; cosmis psych=higher self; it is not possible to 
      experience the silent source of thought while remaining in active thinking processes (eg., 
      introspection), by transcending mental activity a person can experience the comsic psyche at the  
       source of all mental processes; pure consciousness at the source of thought; cosmic psyche=the
5. Cosmic consciousness: the self is permanently maintained along with the changing states of 
     waking,  dreaming, and deep sleep. Pure consciousness, the self, silently witnesses daily activity.          (postrepresentation, self-referral mode of knowing)
6. Refined cosmic consciousness  (postrepresentation, self-referral mode of knowing)
7. Unity consciousness: complete unificaiton betwee Self and environment, conservation of 
     underlying unity across all its manifestations 

self-referral state: transcendental consciousness and higher states of consciousness

self-referral means that the Self is fully awake with itself

Levels of minds 
mental processes through which  one can know the self and the world

  • the structural and functional relationships between consciousness and sensory, cognitive, and affective processes
  • Vedic psychology postpulates that the mind is hierarchically strctured in layers from gross to subtle, from highly active to settle, from concrete to abstract/subtle, from diversified to unified; human mind as having a hierarchical structure with levels of depth of functioning from gross to subtle to the transcendental foundation of individual mind, the unified field of consciousness
  • Underlying the subtlest level of the individual knower and transcendetal to it is the Self, an abstract, silent, completely unified field of consciousness, identified as the self-sufficient source of all mental processes
  • the ultimate status of the knower (I) is alwayes pure consciousness
  • Human development is the progression of the dominant level of awareness to successively deeper levels of mind. from 1 to 6

Prerepresentation (sensorimotor mode of knowing)
1. sense and action (sensorimotor stage), most expressive level, 

Representation (symbolic mode of knowing)
2. desire (preoperational stage): direct attention to the objects of sensation
3. active thinking mind (concrete operatonal stage): 
4. discriminating intellect (formal operational stage)
5. feeling (intuition) (early post formal, postconventional stage)
6. individual ego (late post formal, postconventional stage): integrated function of individuality

underlying these levels of the individual psyche is pure consciousness, the cosmic psyche

Higher states of consciousness
. Transcendental consciousness (=Self)

 Postrepresentation (self-referral mode of knowing): Cosmic consciousness+Refined cosmic 
. Cosmic consciousness
. Refined cosmic consciousness

. Unity consciousness

Hierarchical theories of cognitive development

1.agree with Piaget in viewing development in terms of a hierarchical stage sequence
2.propose advanced stages of conceptual thought beyond formal operations

Richards and Commons
  • Postformal operations are qualitatively distinct and higher stages of cognition than formal operations. Postformal operations have four stages. 
  1. In the first stage (systematic), systems supplant propositions as the object of cognitive operation (systems of relations). 
  2. In the second stage (meta-systematic), the thinker constructs relationship between systems (super-system/relations among systems). 
  3. In the third stage (paradigmatic), relations between systems are recognized as a unified paradigm (fields/systems of supersystems). 
  4. In the fourth stage (cross-paradigmatic), different paradigms are comprehended and related (relations between fields). 

Fischer, Kenny, Pipp

  • the emergence of qualitatively distinct (cognitive) skill levels is age dependent 
  • level of skill complexity; skill structures can be hierarchically ordered in terms of complexity, falling within three major tiers: sensorimotor, concrete representation, abstraction
  • four distinct levels within the tier of abstraction: abstract skill, abstraction skill
  1. age 10-12: onset of formal operations (formal operations begin)
  2. age 14-16: full competence in formal operations
  3. abstract system (about 20): postformal, relate components of one abstraction to those of another
  4. systems of abstract systems (about 25): integrates two or more abstract systems in terms of some general theory or framework

nonhierarchical theories of adult development

1.agree with Piaget that logico-mathematical development in childhood proceeds through hierarchical stages
2.propose development also can occur in adulthood---the development that is non-logico-mathematical and non-hierarchical in nature

Levinson--life structure, theory of life structure development in adulthood

life cycle
  • life course unfolds through a life cycle consisting of four major eras: pre-, early, middle, and late adulthood
  • life cycle as a sequence of eras (eras: the macrostructure of the life cycle)
  • successive eras in adulthood can't be considered higher than their predecessors, i.e, no stage hierarchy in adult development; eras are like seasons, metaphorically, that have their own distinct characters but don't necessarily represent a progression in evolutionary form
  • each era contains a series of developmental periods
1. preadulthood: from conception to age 22
early adult transition (age 17 to 22): new step in individuation (budding adult modifies his or her relationship with family and other components of the preadult world, begins to form a place as an adult  in the adult world)

2.early adulthood: age 17 to 45, begins with early adult transition
pursue youthful aspiriation, establish a niche in society, raise a family
mi-life transition (age 40-45): new step in individuation, more compassionate, reflective, judicious, more genuinely loving of ourselves and others

3. middle adulthood: age 40 to 65

4.late adulthood: start at about age 60-85
late adult transition (age 60-65)

5.late lat adulthood: age 80+

life structure: adult development is the evoluation of the life structure
    • life course has an underlying life structure that unfolds in an invariant sequence through the eras
    • life structure don't remain static, nor does it change caprisiously, 
    • life structure goes through a sequence of alternating stable periods (last 6-8 years) and transitional periods (last 4-5 periods)
    • life structure= patterning or design of the individual life at a given time
    • life structure refers to self-in-world, to the engegement of the invidual in the society
    • life structure differs from cognitive structure or self structure
    • life structure, self-in-relation-to-world, unfolds in a fixed sequence (eras); four major eras: pre-, early, middle, and late adulthood
    • life strcuture has three aspects: (1) the nature of the man's sociocultural world (class, race, family, religion), (2) his participation in the world (e.g., role as citizen, boss, member of diverse groups, (3) aspects of his self --- life structure focues on the patterning of the three aspects 
    • life structure: the underlying pattern or design of a person's life at a given time---what is my life like now?
    • within a given life structure, certain components are central, they occupy most time and energy, provide the basis on which other components are chosen, have the greatest significance for the self; occupaton and family  are usually most central in a man's life
    • the primary components of a life strucure are the person's relationships with various others in the external world; the other may be a person, a group, an institution or culture, a particular obect or place
    • the concept of life structure requires us to exam the nature and patterning of a person's relationships with all significant others and the evolution of these relationships over the years
    • a life stucture may have many and diverse components, but only one or two components occupy a central place in the structure, most often, marriage-family and occupation are the central components of a person's life
    • the central components are those that have the greatest significance for the self and the evolving life course
    • life structures are distinctly different for each person (unlike logical structure, piaget)
    • life structure is built around significant and changing personal relationship with people, institutions, and objects
    • age-linked sequence at the broader level of life-structure periods, with the onset for a given period varying within a range of three to four years
    • in studying the development of the life structure, equal weight to structure-building and structure-changing periods
    • overall pattern of relations between self and world
    • evolution of life strucure
    the sequence of periods in life structure development
    • structure-building periods (5-7 years) --- to form a structure and maintain and enhance our life within it; stable periods; the primary developmental task of a stable period is to make certain crucial choices, build a life structure around crucial choices, seek to attain particular goals nd values within this structure
    • transitional period (5 years) -- terminate the existing life structure and create the possible for a new one; almost 1/2 of adult life is spent in developmental transition; a transition is a process of change that forms a bridge between x and y; during a transition, we are in transit between the two; we are in some sense leaving x and moving toward y; A transitions period involves three main developmental tasks: (1) termination of the existing life structure, (2) individuation, (3) initiation (making a start toward a new life structure); the primary developmental task of a transitional period is to terminate the exisitng stucture and to work toward the initiation of a new structure
    • no life strucure is permanent, periodic change is fundamental to our existence
    • a period is defined in terms of its major tasks, which require a man to build, modify, and rebuild his life structure; a period is not defined in terms of specific external events or inner states
    • each period begins and ends at a defined age--- age-linked periods in the adult development of the life structure
    Developmntal periods in early adn middle adulthood
    • each era contains a series of developmental periods
    • a period is defined in terms of its major tasks, which require a man to build, modify, and rebuild his life structure; a period is not defined in terms of specific external events or inner states
    1. Early adult transition (age 17-22): developmental bridge beween preadulthood and early 
         adulthood; developmental tasks include teminating preadulthood, initiating early adulthood;
         questioning the nature of the preadult world and one's place in it
    2. Entry life structure for early adulthood (Entering the adult world, the first adult life structure)(age
         22-28): building and maintaing an initial mode of adult living; keep options open/avoid strong
         commitments/maximiaing alternatives or creating a stable life sturcure
    3. Age 30 transition (28-33): reappraise and modify the entry structure and to create the basis for the       next life structure
    Novice phase (age 17-33): move beyond adolescence, to build a provisional but necessarily flawed entry life structure, and to learn the limitations of that structure

    4. Settling down: the second adult lif structure (take shape at 32 or 33 and presents unitl 39 or 40)
         Culminating life structure for early adulthood (age 33-40): the vehicle for completing this era and
         realizing youthful aspirations
    5. Mid-life transition (age 40-45): cross-era shifts, serving both to teminate early adulthood and to
        initiate middle adulthood; what have I done with my life? what is it I truly want for myself and
        others?  what are my real values and how are they reflected in my life? What are my greatest
        talents and how am i using or wasting them?
    Culminating phase (age 33-45): bring to fruition the efforts of this era

    6. Entry life structure for middle adulthood (age 45-50): provide an initial basis for life in a new era
    7. Age 50 transition (age 50-55): mid-era opportunity for modifying and improving the entry life
    8. Culminating life structure for middle adulthood (age 55-60): the framwork in which we conclude
        this era
    9. Late adult transition (age 60-65): a boundary period between middle and late adulthood,
        separating  and linking the two eras; Dittmann-Kohli and Baltes offer the concept of wisdom as a
        significant form of cognitive-emotional change that may occur in middle or late adulthood

    The Mid-Life Transition: A Period in Adult Psychosocial Development
    Daniel J. Levinson (1977)

    Dittmann-Kohil and Baltes

    • neofunctionalist conception of adult intellectual development: wisdom as a prototypical case of intellectual growth
    • adult cognitive growth
    • two basic aspects of intelligence: mechanics (logico-mathematical, fundamental context-free cognitive capcacities, piagetian operations, develope early in life, universal, hierarchical stages, develop mainly in childhood) , pragmatics (applying the mechanics of intelligence in the construction or synthesis of context-speficit, factual, procedural knowledge of the world, develop mainly in adulthood)
    • mechanical intelligence is a necessary condition for growth of pragmatic intelligence, but it is not sufficient for it
    • life experience and aspects of the individual not integral to mechanical intelligence are required for the synthesis of pragmatic intelligence
    • the central emphasis in adulthood is not on developing cognitive skills but on deploying existing skills in practical contexts and developing an individualized system of efficacy and knowledge
    • adult growth is particular and conditional, depending on the pragmatics and context of adult life
    • wisdom as one of the fulles expression of synthesized intelligence 
    • psychometric intelligence during adulthood and old age
    • adult intelligence---multiemensionality, multidirectionality, interindividual variability, intraindividual plasticity

    Gardner, Phelps, Wolf
    • aspects of intelligence besides logico-mathematical (mechanical) intelligence
    • visual-spatial thinking,  bodily-kinesthetic activity, musical knowledge, narrative thought
    • sequence of capacities for symbolic expression
    • creativity--adult creativity differ from chilhood creativity in terms of increased technical skill and enhanced flexibility of movement between forms of knowing
    • across the entire life-span, three major stages of creative development can be identified:
    1. preconventional (preschool age): free exploration uninfluenced by society's agenda and standards
    2. conventional (preadolescent): attentive to society's standards and concerned with mastering tecnhical skills
    3. postconventional (from adolescense): shift back to self-expression and freer experimentation on the basis of greater technical mastery 
    • difference between creative develpment and cognitive development studied by piaget and kohlberg
    • although adult's world view is qualitatively and irreversibly different fromthe child's; but through creative development, the adult can gain access to earlier forms---such access is integral to fruitful innovation, whereas in logical reasoning, reversion to childhood forms would be dysfunctional 

    McGuinness, Pribram, Pirnazar
    • agree with Piaget that there is a univeral progression in cognitive development from a sensory level to an abstract level of symbolic transformation
    • this progression doesn't take the form of age-related general stages, but recurs within each new learning experience or task domain at any age, e.g., in learing to read in adulthood
    • the learning sequence begins at a sensory  level and progresses sequentially to an abstract one

    Langer, Chanowitz, Palmerino, Jacobs, Rhodes, Thayer
    • developmental psychology should focus less on how life ordinarily unfolds and more on how it could possibly change at any time through alteration in underlying style of mental functioning
    • two basic styles of mental orientation: mindfulness (through which one actively constucts new categories about self and the world), mindlessness (through which one passively remains within the confins of previously formed distinctions
    • do not believe there is a developmental end  state definable in terms of particular capacities
    • developmentally higher apply only to a general increase of mindfulness as opposed to mindlessness 
    • unlimited potential for increase of mindfulness, the current state can alwayes be further transformed
    • development is open-ended, multipathed, multidirectional

    Sunday, May 06, 2018

    Bengston (1975), in his study of value transmission between the generations, identifies two meaning continuae: materialism/humanism and individualism/collectivism.

    Does a basic guaranteed income decrease the need for social services?

    As early as 1969, Maslow noted that the word transcendence was derived from the verb transcend, meaning to rise above or move beyond time, culture, self, and others. He also identified transcendent behaviors: moving beyond weaknesses, fears, and dependency; transcending the opinions or expectations of others, such as social conventions, family roles, or a focus on others to the exclusion of self; achieving a sense of unity with oneself, others—especially the next generation—and a higher power; and possessing an awareness of a greater meaning in life.

    (Maslow, 1943, 1999)

    Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396.
    Maslow, A. H. (1969). Various meanings of transcendence. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 1, 56-66.
    Maslow, A. H. (1999). Toward a psychology of being (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.

    物以類聚, 人以群分

    Saturday, May 05, 2018

    cognitive-developmental theory of religious development

    J. M. Baldwin, Dewey

    G. H. Mead

    J. M. Baldwin, Thoughts and Things, 3 vols. (New York: Macmillan, 1906)

    G. H. Mead, Mind, Self, and Society (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1934).

    The ultimate object of religious faith is an ideal, unified self
    an ideal, harmonious, or unified society (or kingdom of heaven)
    or an ideal, harmoious cosmos (p227, Kohlberg & Power, 1981)

    @ Kohlberg, L., & Power, C. (1981). MORAL DEVELOPMENT, RELIGIOUS THINKING, AND THE QUESTION OF A SEVENTH STAGE. Zygon®, 16(3), 203-259. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.1981.tb00417.x

    moral development, stage 7, transcendence

    Kohlberg, L. (1973). Continuities in childhood and adult moral development revisited. In P. B.
    Baltes & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology (pp. 180-204). New York:
    Academic Press.

    Kohlberg, L. (1984). Essays on moral development: Vol. 2. The psychology of moral development: Moral stages, their nature and validity. San Francisco: Harper & Row.

    Kohlberg, L., & Power, C. (1981). Moral development, religious thinking and the question of a seventh stage. In L. Kohlberg (Ed.). Essays on moral development: Vol. 1. The philosophy of moral development (311-372). San Francisco: Harper & Row.

    Kohlberg, L., & Ryncarz, R. A. (1990). Beyond justice reasoning: Moral development and considerations of a seventh stage. In C. N. Alexander, & E. J. Langer (Eds.), Higher stages of human development: Perspectives on adult growth (pp. 191-207). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Alexander, C. N., Druker, S. M., & Langer, E. J. (1990). Introduction: Major issues in the exploration of adult growth. In C. N. Alexander, & E. J. Langer (Eds.), Higher stages of human development: Perspectives on adult growth, (pp. 3-32). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Kohlberg, L. (1990). Which postformal levels are stages? Adult Development: Vol. 2. Models and methods in the study of adolescent and adult thought. (pp. 263-268). New York: Praeger

    Kohlberg, L. (1973). Stages and Aging in Moral Development: Some Speculations. The Gerontologist, 13(4), 497-502. doi: 10.1093/geront/13.4.497

    Kohlberg, L., & Power, C. (1981). MORAL DEVELOPMENT, RELIGIOUS THINKING, AND THE QUESTION OF A SEVENTH STAGE. Zygon®, 16(3), 203-259. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.1981.tb00417.x

    Nidich, S., Ryncarz, R., Abrams, A., Orme-Johnson, D. W., & Wallace, R. K. (1983b). Kohlbergian cosmic perspective responses, EEGcoherence, and theTMand TM-Sidhi program.
    Journal of Moral Education, 12 (3), 166–173.
    ego integrity, which is characterized by the feeling that one's life is worthwhile and significant

    眼睛老花等於身體老化 ! 每天三分鐘讓眼球回春! 健康2 0 20151205 完整版01

    眼睛老花等於身體老化 ! 每天三分鐘讓眼球回春! 健康2 0 20151205 完整版01

    Friday, May 04, 2018

    Erikson, E. H . (1951). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.
    Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton

    Thursday, May 03, 2018

    Levin, J. S. (1998). Religious Research in Gerontology, 1980–1994: A Systematic Review. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 10(3), 3-31
    Hamberg, E. M. (1991). Stability and change in religious beliefs, practices, and attitudes: A Swedish
    panel study. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 30(1), 63–80.

    Hastings, P. K., & Hoge, D. R. (1981). Religious trends among college students, 1948–1979. Social
    Forces, 60, 517–531.

    Hoge, D. R., Johnson, B., & Luidens, D. A. (1994). Vanishing boundaries: The religion of mainline
    Protestant baby boomers. Louisville, KY: Westminster.

    Moberg, D. O., & Hoge, D. R. (1986). Catholic college students’ religious and moral attitudes
    1961–1982: Effects of the sixties and seventies. Review of Religious Research, 28, 104–117.

    Shand, J. D. (1990). A forty-year follow-up of the religious beliefs and attitudes of a sample of Amherst College grads. Research in the Social–Scientific Study of Religion, 2, 117–136.

    Wednesday, May 02, 2018
















    Tuesday, May 01, 2018

    Authentic Presence and Compassionate Wisdom: the Art of Jim Bugental
    Michael J. Mahoney
    Journal of Humanistic Psychology
    Vol 36, Issue 4, pp. 58 - 66

    The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 2011, Vol. 43, No. 2

    Maddi (1970) has reported that failure to find meaning leads to existential sickness. However,
    unlike Frankl who believes that there is an ultimate meaning to be discovered, Maddi emphasizes
    that individuals must create their own meanings through symbolism, imagination and judgement. Symbolism is an active cognitive process that organizes the welter of personal experiences
    into coherent categories.
    Imagination is the creative process of generating alternative representations of real experience. Judgement is an evaluative process, having to do with value/moral decisions. Together, these three
    mental processes afford satisfaction to one's deep-rooted need for meaning and coherence.

    Klinger (1977) conceptualizes that personal meaning derives from the pursuit of socially endorsed
    incentive objects. It is through commitment to valuable incentives that one experiences meaning in life.

    《人才去哪兒?》淚「很愛台灣 但回不去了⋯」是誰關上了回家的門

    Bianchi (1987) uncovered retrospective evidence of a transformation of earlier religious and
    ethical interest into a less moralistic and more personalized spirituality by midlife
    Bianchi, E. (1987). Aging as a spiritual journey (2nd ed.).NewYork: Crossroad.

    Jung, C. G. (1964). Man and his symbols. New York: Laurel.

    Chinen, A. B. (1989). In the ever after: Fairy tales and the second half of life.Wilmette, IL: Chiron Publications

    Roof, W. C. (1993). A generation of seekers. The spiritual journeys of the baby boom generation. San Francisco: Harper & Row

    Wuthnow (1998), for example, drawing on a long tradition in religious formation (e.g., dating back to
    Saints Ignatius and Benedict), emphasizes a practice oriented spirituality, one that is based on performance of intentional activities aimed at relating to the sacred.

    Atchley, R. (1997). Everyday mysticism: Spiritual development in later adulthood. Journal of Adult Development, 4, 123–134.

    Neuman, M. (1982). The religious structure of a spirituality. American Benedictine Review, 33, 115–148.

    spirituality is the product of the maturational process that occurs in the course of adult life (Alexander et al., 1990; Sinnott, 1994).

    Alexander C. N., Davies, J. L., Dixon, C. A., Dillbeck, M. C., Druker, S. M., Oetzel, R. M., Muehlman, J. M., & Orme- Johnson, D. W. (1990). Growth of higher stages of consciousness:
    Maharishi’s Vedic psychology of human development. In C. Alexander & E. Langer (Eds.), Higher stages of human development: Perspectives on adult growth (pp. 286–341). New York: Oxford University Press

    Sinnott, J. (1994). Development and yearning: Cognitive aspects of spiritual development. Journal of Adult Development, 1, 91–99.

    middle aged and older adults tend to go beyond the linear and strictly logical modes of apprehending
    reality described by Piaget’s model of early cognitive development (e.g., Piaget & Inhelder, 1969).---Wink, P., & Dillon, M. (2002).

    Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1969). The psychology of the child. New York: Basic Books. (Originally published in 1966)

    Burke (1999) suggests that the adverse social conditions and discontinuities experienced by African Americans may explain why Black women interviewed in her study tended to be more spiritual than White women.
    Burke, P. (1999). Spirituality: A continually evolving component in women’s identity development. In L. E. Thomas & S. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Religion, belief, and spirituality in late life (pp. 113–136). New York: Springer

    McFadden (1996a) proposes that spirituality may be especially meaningful in old age because
    of the many losses and difficulties encountered in late life.
    McFadden, S. (1996a). Religion and spirituality. In Encyclopedia of Gerontology (Vol. 2, pp. 387–397). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    McFadden, S. (1996b). Religion, spirituality, and aging. Handbook of the Psychology of Aging (pp. 162–177). San Diego,CA: Academic Press

    Tornstam (1994, 1999) found retrospective evidence for a self-perceived shift toward gerotranscendence (i.e., a move away from a materialistic and pragmatic view of the world toward a more cosmic and transcendent one) among older adults.
    Tornstam, L. (1994). Gero-transcendence: A theoretical and empirical exploration. In L. E. Thomas & S. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Aging and the religious dimension (pp. 203–225).Westport,CT: Auburn House
    Tornstam, L. (1999). Late-life transcendence: A new developmental perspective on aging. In L. E. Thomas & S. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Religion, belief, and spirituality in late life (pp. 178–202). New York: Springer. Tornstam, 1999)

    In a cross-sectional study, Fowler (1981) reported a positive relation between age and higher
    stages of faith development characterized by a sense of unity and personal transcendence. Support for an association between age and changes in modes of knowing that are conducive to spiritual development was provided by Labouvie-Vief, DeVoe, and Bulka (1989), who found a positive relation between age and the ability to integrate cognitive and emotional perspectives, including a greater comfort with metaphor and subjectivity.

    Labouvie-Vief,G., DeVoe, M.,&Bulka,D. (1989). Speaking about feelings: Conceptions of emotion across the life span. Psychology and Aging, 3, 425–437

    The development of spirituality has also been associated with individual differences in personality, including greater individualism (Roof, 1993, 1999) and a stronger need for independence (Zinnbauer et al., 1997).
    Roof, W. C. (1993). A generation of seekers. The spiritual journeys of the baby boom generation. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
    Roof, W. C. (1999). Spiritual marketplace: Baby boomers and the remaking of American religion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Shulik (1988) argues for the presence of a positive relation between spiritual, ego, and moral development association between spiritual and cognitive development (Sinnott, 1994) raises
    questions about the role of intelligence in the process
    of spiritual growth.
    Shulik, R. (1988). Faith development in older adults. Educational Gerontology, 14, 291–301.

    Gardner (1993) does not include spirituality in his multifaceted model of intelligence.
    Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

    Emmons (1999), however, favors the notion of a spiritual intelligence because he argues that spirituality has the capacity to enhance an individual’s level of adaptive functioning
    Emmons, R. A. (1999). The psychology of ultimate concerns. New York: Guilford Press.

    If spiritual growth is associated with cognitive (e.g., Sinnott, 1994), and ego and moral (Shulik, 1988) development

    Monday, April 30, 2018

    Barry, C. M., Nelson, L., Davarya, S., & Urry, S. (2010). Religiosity and spirituality
    during the transition to adulthood. International Journal of Behavioral
    Development, 34, 311–324. doi:10.1177/0165025409350964

    Button, T. M. M., Stallings, M. C., Rhee, S. H., Corley, R. P., & Hewitt, J. K. (2011).
    The etiology of stability and change in religious values and religious attendance.
    Behavior Genetics, 41, 201–210. doi:10.1007/s10519-010-9388-3

    Hayward, R. D., Maselko, J., & Meador, K. G. (2012). Recollections of childhood
    religious identity and behavior as a function of adult religiousness.
    International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 22(1), 79–88. doi:10.1080/

     Heintz, L. M., & Baruss, I. (2001). Spirituality in late adulthood. Psychological Reports,
    88, 651–654. doi:10.2466/pr0.2001.88.3.651

    Lopez, A. B., Huynh, V. W., & Fuligni, A. J. (2011). A longitudinal study of religious
    identity and participation during adolescence. Child Development, 82(4),
    1297–1309. doi:10.1111/cdev.2011.82.issue-4

    Stoppa, T. M., & Lefkowitz, E. S. (2010). Longitudinal changes in religiosity among
    emerging adult college students. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(1),
    23–38. doi:10.1111/jora.2010.20.issue-1

    Pesut, B., & Reimer-Kirkham, S. (2010). Situated clinical encounters in the negotiation
    of religious and spiritual plurality: A critical ethnography. International Journal
    of Nursing Studies, 47(7), 815–825. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.11.014

    Washington, O. G., Moxley, D. P., Garriott, L., & Weinberger, J. P. (2009). Five
    dimensions of faith and spirituality of older African American women transitioning
    out of homelessness. Journal of Religion and Health, 48, 431–444.

    Nelson-Becker, H. B. (2004). Spiritual, religious, nonspiritual, and nonreligious narratives
    in marginalized older adults: A typology of coping styles. Journal of
    Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 17(1–2), 21–38. doi:10.1300/J496v17n01_02

    Atchley, R. C. (2006). Continuity, spiritual growth, and coping in later adulthood.
    Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 18(2–3), 19–29. doi:10.1300/

    Batson, C. D., Schoenrade, P. A. & Ventis, W. L. (1993). The religious experience: A
    social-psychological perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Gallup, G., & Lindsay, M. (2000). Surveying the religious landscape: Trends in U.S.
    beliefs. New York: Morehouse Publishing.

    Levin, J. S., Taylor, R. J., & Chatters, L. M. (1994). Race and gender differences in religiosity
    among older adults: Findings from four national surveys. Journals of Gerontology:
    Social Sciences, 49, S137-S145.

    Neugarten (1968) found an increasing interiority in people from mid-life onwards and perhaps this is associated with increasing interest in religion.

    Neugarten, B. L. (1968). ‘Adult personality: Toward a psychology of the life cycle.’ In B.L. Neugarten (Ed.), Middle Age and Aging: A Reader in Social Psychology. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

    Atchley, R. C. (1997). The subjective importance of being religious and its effect on health and morale 14 years later. Journal of Aging Studies, 11, 131-141.

    Blazer, D., & Palmore, E. (1976). Religion and aging in a longitudinal panel. The Gerontologist,
    16, 82-85.

    Kirkpatrick, L. (1997). A longitudinal study of changes in religious belief and behavior
    as a function of individual differences in adult attachment style. Journal for the Scientific
    Study of Religion, 36, 207-217.

    Markides, K.S., Levin, J.S.,& Ray, L. A. (1987). Religion, aging, and life satisfaction:
    An eight-year, three-wave longitudinal study. The Gerontologist, 27, 660-665.

    Shand, J. D. (2000). The effects of life experiences over a 50-year period on the certainty
    of belief and disbelief in God. The International Journal for the Psychology
    of Religion, 10, 85-100.

    Benner P. & Wrubel J. (1989) The Primacy of Caring. Addison-Wesley Co., Menlo Park

    King I. (1971) Toward A Theory for Nursing – General Concepts of Human Behaviour. John Wiley and sons Inc., New York.

    King I. (1981) A Theory for Nursing – Systems, Concepts, Process. Delmar Publishers Inc., New York.

    Roy C. (1971) Adaption: a basis for nursing practice. Nursing Outlook 19, 254–257.

    Roy C. (1984) Introduction to Nursing: An Adaptation Model. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

    Roy C. (1988) An explication of the philosophical assumptions of the Roy Adaption Model. Nursing Science Quarterly 1, 26–34.

    Roy C. (1997) Future of the Roy Model: challenge to redefine adaption. Nursing Science Quarterly 10, 42–48.

    Travelbee J. (1971) Interpersonal Aspects of Nursing. FA Davis, Philadelphia.

    Watson J. (1987) Nursing on the caring edge: Metaphorical vignettes. Advances in Nursing Science 10, 10–17.

    Watson J. (1988) Nursing: Human Science and Human Care. A Theory of Nursing. National League of Nursing, New York.

    Watson J. (1997) The theory of human caring: retrospective and prospective. Nursing Science Quarterly 10, 49–52.

    Wadensten B. & Carlsson M. (2001) A qualitative study of nursing staff members’ interpretations of signs of gerotranscendence. Journal of Advanced Nursing 36, 635–642.

    Buhler, Neugarten

    Buhler's basic life tendencies that work toward the fulfillment of life (Buhler, 1935; Buhler & Massarik, 1968)

    Buhler, C. (1935). The curve of life as studied in biographies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 19,405-409.

    Buhler, C, & Massarik, F. (Eds.). (1968). The course of human life. New York: Springer

    Neugarten's (1968,1973) descriptions of personality change in adulthood and old age.

    Neugarten, B. L. (1968). The awareness of middle age. In B. L. Neugarten (Ed.), Middle age and aging (pp. 93-98). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Neugarten, B. L. (1973). Personality change in late life: A developmental perspective. In C. Eisdorfer & M. P. Lawton (Eds.), The psychology of adult development and aging (pp. 311-335). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Neugarten, B. L., Havighurst, R., & Tobin, S. (1961). The measurement of life satisfaction. Journal of Gerontology, 16, 134-143.

    Allport's (1961) conception of maturity.

    Allport, G. W. (1961). Pattern and growth in personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston

    Maddi, S. R. (1967). The existential neurosis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 72, 311-325.

    Maddi, S. R. (1970). The search for meaning. In M. Page (Ed.) Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 17, pp. 134183). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

    Frank], V. E. (1959). Man’s search,for meaning: An introduction to logotherapy. London: Hodder & Stoughton.

    Yalom, I. D. (1980). Existential psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books,
    decline in social capital thesis generally suggest that changes occur across birth cohorts (e.g. Brehm and Rahn 1997; Putnam 1995, 2000).

    Brehm, John, and Wendy Rahn. 1997. “Individual-level Evidence for the Causes and Consequences of Social Capital.” American Journal of Political Science 41:999-1023.

    the role of birth cohorts in human development (Alwin and McCammon 2007).
    Alwin, Duane F., and Ryan J. McCammon. 2007. “Rethinking Generations.” Research in Human
    Development 4:219-37.

    Brehm and Rahn 1997; Robinson and Jackson 2001
    have argued that declines in social capital generally occur across generations or birth cohorts.

    Schwadel, Philip. 2010. “Period and Cohort Effects on Religious Non-Affiliation and Religious Disaffiliation: A Research Note.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 49:311-19.
    ______. 2011. “Age, Period, and Cohort Effects on Religious Activities and Beliefs.” Social Science
    Research 40:181-92.

    Sunday, April 29, 2018

    Baker, D. C., & Nussbaum, P. D. (1997). Religious practice and
    spirituality—then and now: A retrospective study of spiritual
    dimensions of residents residing at a continuing care retirement
    community. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 10, 33–51

    McFadden, S. H. (1999). Religion, personality and aging: A life
    span perspective. Journal of Personality, 67, 1081–1104.
    suggests that qualitative interviews and approaches may be more suited to
    looking at the changing nature of spirituality over time

    MacKinlay, E. (2001a). The spiritual dimension of caring:
    Applying a model for spiritual tasks of ageing. Journal of
    Religious Gerontology, 12, 151–166.

    MacKinlay, E. (2001b). Understanding the ageing process:
    A developmental perspective of the psychosocial and spiritual
    dimensions. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 12, 111–122
    MacKinlay (2001a)

    Bar-Tur, L., & Prager, E. (1996). Sources of personal meaning in
    a sample of young-old and old-old Israelis. Activities, Adaptation
    & Aging, 21, 59–75.

    Melia, S. P. (2002). Themes of continuity and change in the spiritual
    reminiscence of elder Catholic women. New York: Springer
    Publishing Co

    Melia, S. P. (2001). Solitude and prayer in the late lives of elder
    Catholic women: Activity, withdrawal, or transcendence?
    Journal of Religious Gerontology, 13, 47–63.

    Tornstam, L. (1997). Gerotranscendence in a broad crosssectional
    perspective. Journal of Aging & Identity, 2, 17–36.

    Pincharoen, S., & Congdon, J. G. (2003). Spirituality and health
    in older Thai persons in the United States. Western Journal of
    Nursing Research, 25, 93–108

    Black, H. K. (1995). ‘Wasted lives’ and the hero grown old:
    Personal perspectives of spirituality by aging men. Journal of
    Religious Gerontology, 9, 35–48.

    Ahmadi, F. (1998). Sufism and gerotranscendence: The impact of way of thinking, culture, and aging on Spiritual Maturity. Journal of Aging and Identity, 3, 189–211.

    Ahmadi, F. (2000). Reflections on Spiritual Maturity and Gerotranscendence: Dialogues with Two Sufis. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 11, 43–74.

    Ahmadi, L. F. (2001). Gerotranscendence and different cultural settings. Ageing & Society, 21, 395–415.

    Ahmadi, L. F., & Thomas, L.E. (2000). Gerotranscendence and life satisfaction: Studies of religious and secular Iranians and Turks. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 12, 17–41.

    Seifert, L. S. (2002). Toward a psychology of religion,
    spirituality, meaning-search, and aging: Past research
    and a practical application. Journal of Adult Development, 9,

    McFadden (1999)
    The penultimate stage, Generativity versus Stagnation, she sees as representing the‘outward turn of the self towards the world (p. 1094) and suggests that religious commitment may help older people to find expression for an ethic of Generativity.
    The final stage of Integrity versus Despair is seen as representing an ‘inward turn’ and may be supported by meditative practices and the symbolic connections between humanity and the
    sacred offered by religion.

    McFadden, S. H. (1999). Religion, personality and aging: A life span perspective. Journal of Personality, 67, 1081–1104.

    Saturday, April 28, 2018

    Moberg (2001b) argued in favor of these developmental changes in his contention that findings from several studies (e.g., Koenig 1995, Moberg, 1997)

    Moberg, D. O. (2001b). Research on spirituality. In Moberg, D. O. (Ed.), Aging and
    spirituality: Spiritual dimensions of aging theory, research, practice, and policy,
    (pp. 55–83). Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Pastoral Press.

    Koenig, H. (1995). Research on religion and aging. New York, NY: Greenwood

    Moberg, D. O. (1997). Religion and aging. In Ferraro, K. F. (Ed.), Gerontology:
    Perspectives and issues, 2nd ed. (pp. 193–220). New York, NY: Springer Publishing

    increases in spirituality are better explained by aging rather than a cohort effect (Moberg, 2001b). In fact, Schultz-Hipp (2001)

    Schultz-Hipp, P. L. (2001). Do spirituality and religion increase with age? In Moberg,
    D. O. (Ed.), Aging and spirituality: Spiritual dimensions of aging theory,
    research, practice, and policy, (pp. 85–98). Binghamton, NY: The Haworth
    Pastoral Press

    Dalby (2006) reviewed 13 studies related to changes in spirituality across the lifespan. General conclusions revealed evidence that spirituality increases with age.

    Dalby, P. (2006). Is there a process of spiritual change or development associated
    with ageing? A critical review of research. Aging & Mental Health,
    10(1), 4–12.

    carl jung

    analytical psychology
    Jung’s Individuation Process.
    individuation---- a process of integrating the conscious and the unconscious.

    individuation that is the central process of human development

    Analytical psychology, or Jungian psychology: emphasizes the primary importance of the individual psyche and the personal quest for wholeness.

    For Jung, archetypes consist of universal, mythic characters that reside within the collective unconscious of people the world over. Archetypes represent fundamental human motifs of our experience as we evolved; consequentially, they evoke deep emotions.

     integration of the ego (consciousness) with the personal and collective self.

    Jung’s theory of growth and development conceptualized some of the
    preliminary changes associated with the second half of life (Jung, 1971). In
    particular, Jung explained that the focus of the first half of life is largely
    externally oriented to such factors as one’s environment, family, and culture.
    Jung described how this externally oriented view of life undergoes a
    dramatic shift inward during the second half of the life cycle. At this juncture,
    Jung argued that individuals make a turn inward to respond to newly
    emerging existential issues such as making sense of their life’s purpose and
    finding meaning. With the inherent heightened awareness of one’s own
    mortality in the second half of life, Jung explained that this inwardly oriented
    shift is also often accompanied by an increased exploration of one’s
    spirituality (Jung, 1971)

    Jung’s proposal of this inward shift parallels Tornstam’s theory of
    gerotranscendence, which describes a similar change from an externally oriented
    worldly focus to a more inwardly oriented spiritual focus (Tornstam,
    2005). In addition, Jung’s inward shift is also reminiscent of the tasks
    associated with Erikson’s developmental theory, whereby individuals
    cycle through a process of inwardly focused review of their lives to
    achieve self-acceptance and acceptance of their inevitable death from the
    physical world. In all three models there is an inherent theme of letting
    go of material things, becoming less attached to the declining physical
    body, and enhancing the connection with the universe through increased

    Jung, C. (1971). The stages of life. In J. Campbell (Ed.), The Portable Jung (pp.
    3–22). New York, NY: Penguin Books

    Jung (1943, 1964) argued that around midlife individuals typically begin to turn inward to explore the more spiritual aspect of the self. Prior to this stage, external constraints associated with launching a career and establishing a family tend to be paramount. An overemphasis on worldly success becomes problematic, however, with the increased awareness of one’s mortality that comes at midlife.
    The inward turn that characterizes the second half of adulthood complements, according to Jung, the outer directed orientation of young adulthood in a way that expands one’s sense of the self and thus completes the process of self-realization (seeWink, 1999).
    Jung, C. G. (1943). On the psychology of the unconscious. In H. Read, M. Fordham, & G. Adler (Eds.), Jung: Collected Works (Vol. 7). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Jung, C. G. (1964). Man and his symbols. New York: Laurel
    Wink,P. (1999). Addressing end-of-life issues: Spirituality and inner life. Generations, 23, 75–80.
    Reed, P. G. (2008). The theory of self-transcendence. In P. R. Smith & M. J. Liehr (Eds.), Middle range theory for nursing (2nd ed., pp. 105-130). New York, NY: Springer.

    Reed, P. G. (2009). Demystifying self-transcendence for mental health nursing practice and research. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 23, 397-400.

    Flood’s (2006) theory of successful aging among various older adult populations was explored in a series of three descriptive cross-sectional surveys (McCarthy, 2009, 2011; McCarthy et al, 2012).

    Flood, M. (2006). A mid-range theory of successful aging. Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 9(2), 35-39.

    McCarthy, V. L. (2011). A new look at successful aging: Exploring a mid-range nursing theory among older adults. Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 15(1), 17-21

    Tornstam (1994) developed a 10-item, three-dimensional Gerotranscendence Scale.
    Tornstam, L. (1994). Gerotranscendence: A theoretical and empirical exploration. In I. E. Thomas & S. A. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Aging and the religious dimension (pp. 203-225). Westport, CT: Auburn House.

    A number of studies were conducted by Tornstam (1997b, 2000, 2003) and others, mostly with Scandinavian samples (Braam, Bramsen, van Tilburg, van der Ploeg, & Deeg, 2006; Wadensten & Carlsson, 2003, 2005; Wadensten & Hägglund, 2006).

    Tornstam, L. (1997b). Gerotranscendence in a broad cross-sectional perspective. Journal of Aging and Identity, 2(1), 17-36.
    Tornstam, L. (2000). Transcendence in later life. Generations, 23(4), 10-14.
    Tornstam, L. (2003). Gerotranscendence from young old age to old old age. Retrieved from http://www.soc.uu.se/sv/publikationer/publikationer-pa-institutionen/ovrigapublikationer/
    (Online publication from The Social Gerontology Group, Uppsala, Sweden)

    Braam, A. W., Bramsen, I., van Tilburg, T. G., van der Ploeg, H. M., & Deeg, D. (2006). Cosmic transcendence and framework of meaning in life: Patterns among older adults in The Netherlands. Journal of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 61, S121-S128

    Wadensten, B., & Carlsson, M. (2003). Nursing theory views on how to support the process of ageing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 42, 118-124.

    Wadensten, B., & Carlsson, M. (2005). Theory-driven guidelines for practical care of older people, based on the theory of gerotranscendence. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41, 462-470.

    Wadensten, B., & Hägglund, D. (2006). Older people’s experience of participating in a reminiscence group with a gerotranscendental perspective: Reminiscence group with a gerotranscendental perspective in practice. International Journal of Older People Nursing, 1, 159-167.

    Self-Transcendence Scale, developed by Reed (1989b) among samples of older adults and adults facing end-of-life issues, consisted of 15 items that measured perceptions of the degree or level of transcendence. Items included the following: “sharing my wisdom and experience with others,” “helping others in some way,” and “finding meaning in my past experiences.”

    Reed. P. G. (1989b). Self-transcendence in aging scale: Mental health of older adults. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 11, 161-163.

    ego-psychologists vs self-psychologists

    With traditions back to Mead (1934). The founder of psychoanalytic self-psychology;

     Kohut (1971, 1977) gradually abandoned ego-psychology's ideas in favour of a more socially constituted self, dependent on "mirroring" other self objects. Gullestad (1992) gives an analysis of Kohut's development of the self-concept

    socially constituted self, a self that is more changing, many-sided, ambiguous. The self becomes
    less unitary, more "diffuse" and open

    Hunsberger, B.: 1985, ‘Religion, age, life satisfaction, and perceived sources of
    religiousness:A study of older persons’, Journal of Gerontology 40(5), pp. 615–
    Firebaugh, Glenn, and Brian Harley. 1991. Trends in U.S. church attendance: Secularization and revival, or merely life cycle effects? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 30: 487-500.

     Hout and Greeley 1990. The cohort doesn't hold: Comment on Chaves (1989). Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 29: 519-24.

    culture, spirituality

    definition of psychological constructs such as spirituality tends to vary across cultures (Stifoss-Hanssen, 1995; William, Feldt,&Amelang, 1997; Wink&Dillon, 2002), and that this tendency is more evident when the cultures share few historical and ideological traditions (Takahashi & Bordia, 2000). Most theoretical discussions and empirical studies so far, however, have been carried out in the U.S.
    and Western Europe with a strong Judeo-Christian focus (e.g., Zinnbauer et al., 1997). The concept of spirituality, therefore, warrants a cross-cultural investigation of implicit theories in order to provide a broader and more inclusive framework (Richards & Bergin, 1999).

    @Takahashi, M., & Ide, S. (2003). Implicit Theories of Spirituality Across Three Generations: A Cross-Cultural Comparison in the U.S. and Japan. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 15(4), 15-38

    Cultural psychologists have focused attention on between-society differences in the likelihood of focusing on the "me" versus the "us" aspects of the self (Markus & Oyserman, 1989; Oyserman, 1993; Triandis, 1 989). For example, Americans are described as more likely than East Asians to take a "me" perspective (Markus & Kitayama, 1991).

    Markus, H., & Oyserman, D. (1989). Gender and thought: The role of the self-concept. In
    M. Crawford & M. Gentry (Eds.), Gender and thought: Psychological perspectives (pp. 100-
    127). New York: Springer-Verlag

    Oyserman, D. (1993). The lens of personhood: Viewing the self, others, and conflict in a multicultural society. journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 993-1009.

    Triandis, H. C. (1989). The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts. Psychological
    Review, 96, 506-520.

    Markus, H., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion,
    and motivation. Psychological Review, 20, 568-579

    In contrast, social identity researchers demonstrate that whether one takes a "me" or an "us" perspective is not fixed by culture but influenced by context (Brewer, 1991; Brewer & Gardner, 1996; Hogg, 2003, 2006). More situated approaches demonstrate empirically that small shifts in contexts influence whether anyone, American or East Asian, takes on "me" or "us" perspectives (for reviews,see Oyserman, 2007, in press; Oyserman & Lee, 2008a, 2008b; Oyserman & Sorensen,
    2009). Taking on a "me" or an "us" perspective influences perception and mental procedures more generally, as we discuss in  the section on self-concept.

    Brewer, M. B. (1991). The social self: On being the same and different at the same time. Personality
    and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1 7, 475-482.

    Brewer, M. B., & Gardner, W. (1996). Who is this "we"?: Levels of collective identity and
    self representations. journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 83-93.

    Hogg, M. A. (2003). Social identity. In M. R. Leary & ]. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of
    self and identity (pp. 462-479). New York: Guilford Press.

    Hogg, M. A. (2006). Social identity theory. In P. ]. Burke (Ed.), Contemporary social psychological
    theories (pp. 1 1 1-136). Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.

    Oyserman, D. (2007). Social identity and selfregulation. In A. W. Kruglanski & E. T. Higgins
    (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (2nd ed., pp. 432-453). New York: Guilford Press.

    Oyserman, D., & Lee, S. W. S. (2008a). Does culture influence what and how we think?: Effects of priming individualism and collectivism. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 3 1 1-342.

    Oyserman, D., & Lee, S. W. S. (2008b). A situated cognition perspective on culture: Effects
    of priming cultural syndromes on cognition and motivation. In R. M. Sorrentino & S. Yamaguchi (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition across cultures (pp. 237-265). New York: Elsevier.

    Oyserman, D., & Sorensen, N. (2009}. Understanding cultural syndrome effects on what and how we think: A situated cognition model. In R. Wyer, Y.-Y. Hong, & C .-Y. Chiu (Eds.), Understanding culture: Theory, research and application (pp. 25-52). New York: Psychology Press.

    @Self, Self-Concept, and Identity by Daphna Oyserman, Kristen Elmore, George Smith
    Handbook of Self and Identity, Edited by Mark R. Leary, June Price Tangney

    Pimps and traffickers prey on vulnerable Rohingya girls

    Friday, April 27, 2018

    Bianchi, E. (1982). Aging as a spiritual journey. New York: Crossroad.

    Guigon, C. (2000). Authenticity and integrity: A Heideggerian perspective. In P.
    Young-Eisendrath & M.E. Miller (Eds.), The psychology of mature spirituality (pp.
    62-74). London: Routledge

    Moody, H. R. (1995). Mysticism. In M. A. Kimble, S.H. McFadden, J. W. Ellor,&J. J.
    Seeber (Eds.), Aging, spirituality, and religion (pp. 87-101). Minneapolis, MN:

    Wink, P., & Dillon, M. (2002). Spiritual development across the adult life course:
    Findings from a longitudinal study. Journal of Adult Development, 9(1), 79-94.

    Guigon, 2000; Moody, 1995; Wink&Dillon, 2002

    Moberg (2001a)
    concluded that regardless of racial, cultural, religious variations,
    mounting empirical evidence in the past half century pointed to the incremental
    pattern of spiritual experiences with age.
    Moberg, D. O. (2001a). Research on spirituality. In D. O. Moberg (Ed.), Aging and
    spirituality (pp. 55-67). New York: Haworth Pastoral Press.

    Elkins, Hedstrom, Hughes, Leaf, and Saunders (1988) approached spirituality from a nonreligious, phenomenological perspective by examining such classic psychological literature produced by authors such as Maslow, Fromm, and Frankl.

    Elkins, D. N., Hedstrom, L. J., Hughes, L. L., Leaf, J. A., & Saunders, C. (1988).
    Phenomenological spirituality. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 28(4), 5-18.

    Chinen, A. B. (1986). Elder tales revisited: Forms of transcendence in later life. The
    Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 18(2), 171-192.
    Argue, A., Johnson, D. R., & White, L. K. (1999). Age and religiosity: Evidence from
    a three-wave panel analysis. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 38(3),
    423–435. doi:10.2307/1387762

    Peacock, J., & Poloma, M. (1999). Religiosity and life satisfaction across the life
    course. Social Indicators Research, 48(3), 321–345



    Garcia-Zamor, J. C. (2003). Workplace spirituality and organizational performance.
    Public Administration Review, 63, 355–363. doi:10.111/1540-6210.00295
    Jung, C. G. (1938). Psychology and religion. In G. Adler (Ed.), Collected works of C. G. Jung
    (Vol. 11: Psychology and religion: West and East; R. F. C. Hull, Trans.). Princeton, NJ:
    Princeton University Press.

    Rohr, R. (2011). Falling upward: A spirituality for the two halves of life. San Francisco, CA:

    Thursday, April 26, 2018

    Previous research has revealed that people experience different levels of the presence of meaning at different ages (e.g., Ryff & Essex, 1992)

    Ryff, C.D., & Essex, M.J. (1992). The interpretation of life experience and well-being: the sample case of relocation. Psychology and Aging, 7, 507–517

    lower presence of meaning in later years (e.g., Ryff & Essex, 1992

    Pinquart, M. (2002). Creating and maintaining purpose in life in old age: A meta-analysis. Ageing International, 27, 90–114.

    higher presence of meaning later in life (e.g., Meier & Edwards, 1974; Reker, 2005; Reker, Peacock,
    & Wong, 1987; Van Ranst & Marcoen, 1997).

    Reker, G.T. (2005). Meaning in life of young, middle-aged, and older adults: Factorial validity, age, and gender invariance of the Personal Meaning Index (PMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 71–85.

    Ryff’s (1989) measure emphasizes having and achieving goals (i.e., ‘I enjoy making plans for the future and working to make them a reality’; Ryff, 1989), possibly capturing content that is more susceptible to change over the lifespan.

    Ryff, C.D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57,

    found no age-related differences on the ‘will to meaning’ subscale of the LAP-R, which is similar conceptually to the search for meaning in life (Reker et al., 1987).

    establish identity, career, and social roles (Arnett, 2000; Erikson, 1968; Marcia, 1966)

    Arnett, J.J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480.

    Marcia, J.E. (1966). Development and validation of egoidentity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 351–358
    Fichter, 5 Gorer, 6 Cauter and Downham, 7 and Glock, Ringer and Babbie, 8 have shown that weekly church attendance is slightly higher among older people than younger people.

    In addition Gorer found slight dŸ in belief in life after death between older and younger persons.

    5 Joseph H. Fiehter, "The Profile of Catholic ReligiousLife," American Journal o~ Sociology,
    58 (July, 1952), pp. 145-49.

    6 Geoffrey Gorer, Exploring EngIish Character, London: Cresset, 1955.

    T. Cauter and J. S. Downham, The Communication of Ideas, London: Reader's Digest
    and Chatto and Windus, 1954.

    Charles Y. Glock, BenjamŸ B. Ringer, and Earl Babbie, To Comfort and To Challenge:
    A Dilemma of the Contemporary Church, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.

    Op. cit. In addition, Cavan and his associates found slight inereases in the proportion
    believing in lffe after death as age inereased in a study, however, restrieted to persons over
    60. For lack of denominational controls, and because of the small and somewhat inconsistent
    difference, ir is diflicult to say what, ff anything, these data mean.

     R. S. Cavan, et al., Personal Adjustment in Old Age, Chieago: Scienee Researeh Assoeiates, 1949.

    Finland Has Second Thoughts About Giving Free Money to Jobless People

    basic income experiment


    Wednesday, April 25, 2018

    Scannell, E.D., Allen, F.C.L., & Burton, J. (2002). Meaning  in life and positive and negative well-being. North American Journal of Psychology, 4(1), 93–112.

    no age differences in meaning scores (e.g. Debats, 1998; Reker, Peacock, & Wong, 1987),

    others came across increasing scores with age (e.g. Meier & Edwards, 1974; Reker & Fry, 2003;
    Steger et al., 2006; Van Ranst & Marcoen, 1997).

    Van Ranst, N., & Marcoen, A. (1997). Meaning in life of young and elderly adults: An examination of the factorial validity and invariance of the Life Regard Index. Personality and Individual Differences, 22, 877–884.

    Tuesday, April 24, 2018

    Elkins, Hedstrom, Hughes, Leaf, and Saunders (1988)
    Jung, Frankl, and Maslow,
    extracted nine major components: transcendent dimension, meaning and purpose in life, mission in life, sacredness of life, material values, altruism, idealism, awareness of the tragic, and fruits of spirituality. These components were then evaluated by five “highly spiritual” individuals from various faith traditions (e.g., Buddhist, Catholic, Jewish, etc.). The results revealed a high degree of
    consensus across these religious disciplines that these nine components were relevant and constituted important aspects of spirituality
    Elkins, D. N., Hedstrom, L. J., Hughes, L. L., Leaf, J. A., & Saunders, C. (1988). Toward
    A Humanistic-phenomenological spirituality: Definition, description, and measurement.
    Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 28, 5–18.

    Takahashi and Ide (2004) found in a cross-cultural study involving three generation family members that the semantic meanings of these concepts were similar in both Japan and the United States but the conceptual boundary is less articulated in the former than in the latter culture
    Takahashi. M & Ide. S. (2004). Implicit Theories Across Three Generations: A Cross-
    Cultural Comparison in the U.S. and Japan. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 15(4),

    Flannely, K. F., Flannely, L.T., Krause, N., Strock, A. L., & Weaver, A. J. (2005). The
    Quantity and Quality of Research on Religion and Spirituality in Four Major Gerontology
    Journals Between 1985 and 2002. Research on Aging, 27, 119–135.

    Generational cohort theory states that social cycles repeat themselves every four generations and each
    of these generations is called a cohort.

    Monday, April 23, 2018

    religiousness in large samples of aging persons show consistency in the perceived importance of religion (Atchley, 1997a), public and private religiosity (Markides, 1983; Markides, Levin, & Ray, 1987), self-rated religiosity (Anson, Antonovsky, & Sagy, 1990), positive religious attitudes
    (Blazer & Palmore, 1976), and religious beliefs (Shand, 1990).

    Atchley, R. C. (1997a). The subjective importance of being religious and its effect on
    health and morale 14 years later. Journal of Aging Studies, 11, 131–141.

    Markides, K. S. (1983). Aging, religiosity, and adjustment: A longitudinal analysis.
    Journal of Gerontology, 38, 621–635.

    Markides, K. S., Levin, J. S., & Ray, L. A. (1987). Religion, aging, and life satisfaction:
    An eight-year, three-wave longitudinal study. The Gerontologist, 27, 660–665

    Anson, O., Antonovsky, A.,&Sagy, S. (1990). Religiosity and well-being among retirees:
    A question of causality. Behavior, Health, and Aging, 1, 85–97.

    Shand, J. D. (1990). A forty-year follow-up of the religious beliefs and attitudes of a
    sample of Amherst College grads. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion,
    2, 117–136.

    A few longitudinal studies have shown an increase in private religious practices in older persons who develop illnesses during the study period (Anson, Antonovsky,&Sagy, 1990; Markides, Levin,&Ray, 1987
    Moberg (1965, 1971, 1972) concluded that there is a decline in religious activities outside the home
    (e.g., church attendance) in old age but religious feelings show an increase.

    Moberg, D. O. Religiosity in old age. The Gerontologist, 1965, 5, 78-8

    Mobcrg, D. O. Religion and the aging family. Family Coordinator, 1972, 21, 47-60

     Wingrove, C. R., & Alston, J. P. Cohort analysis of church attendance, 1939-1969. Social Forces, 1974,55, 324-331
    Bultena, L. 1949 "Church membership and church attendance in Madison, Wisconsin."
    American Sociological Review 14:384-389

    Lazerwitz, B. 1961 "Some factors associated with variations in church attendance." Social
    Forces 39:301-309.

    Lenski, G. 1953 "Social correlates of religious i n t e r e s t . " American Sociological
    Review 18:533-544

    Erskine (1965), for example, observes that older persons exhibit a
    stronger b e l i e f i n God and i n an a f t e r l i f e , attend church more r e g u l a r l y , and
    read the Bible and practice private devotions more than younger age groups

    Taves and Hansen (1963), Lloyd (1955), Culver (1961), and
    Kuhlen (1962), tend to perceive the s i g n i f i c a n t drop in non-church a c t i v i t i e s
    and the reemphasis on church and religious participation among the e l d e r l y as
    the result of increased concern for r e l i g i o n with age.

    Havighurst, R. J., & Albrecht, R. older people. Longmans, New York, 1953

    Orbach, H. L. Age and religion: A study of church attendance in the Detroit Metropolitan area. Geriatrics, 1961, 76, 530-540.

    Streib, G. Longitudinal study of retirement. Final Report of the Social Security Administration, 1965.

    Wingrove, C. R., & Alston, J. P. Age, aging and church attendance. Cerontologist, 1971, 77, 356-358.

    Fukuyama, Y. The major dimensions of church membership. Review of Religious Research, 1961, 2,

    Riley, M. W., & Foner, A. Aging and society. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1968.

    Cavan, R. S., Burgess, E. W., Havighurst, R. J., & Goldhamer, H. Personal adjustment in old age. Science Research Associates, Chicago, 1949.

    Barron, M. L. The role of religion and religious institutions in creating the milieu of older people. In D. Scudder (Ed.), Organized religion and the older person. Univ. of Florida Press, Gainesville, 1958

    Mathiasen, G. The role of religion in the lives of older people. New York State Governor's Conference on Problems of the Aging. New York, 1955

    Moberg, D. O. Religion in the later years. In A. M. Hoffman (Ed.), The daily needs and interests of older persons. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, 1970

    How to Find Data for Nonprofit Research

    Fichter, J. H. 1952 "The Profile of Catholic Religious Life." American Journal of Sociology 58(September): 145-150.

    1954 Social Relations in the Urban Parish. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

    Cauter, T., and J. S. Downham. 1954 The Communication of Ideas. London: Chatto & Windus

    Glock, C. Y., B. B. Ringer, and E. R. Babbie 1967 To Comfort and Challenge. Berkeley:
    University of California Press.

    Sunday, April 22, 2018

    religiosity, ageing, aging

    The early studies done in the 1950s and 1960s had indicated a slightly higher church attendance among older people than among younger people.
    # Joseph H. Fichter, "The Profile of Catholic Religious Life," American Journal of Sociology, 1952,58:145-149

    Later studies done in the 1970s did not indicate this pattern of church attendance.
    #C. Ray Wingrove and Jon P. Alston, "Age and Church Attendance," The Gerontologist, 1971, 4:356-358.

    Bahr reviewed the earliest studies of church attendance and developed four different models based on the findings of these studies. These models are:
    1. The traditional model which reveals a steady drop in church attendance from ages 18-35 with the lowest point for most people being between 30 to 35 after which church attendance increases until old age.
    2. The stability model asserts that there is no relationship between aging and church attendance and that the pattern of church attendance remains stable throughout one's lifetime.
    3. The family cycle model indicates that church attendance is altered by stages of the family cycle. Families peak in church attendance when the children reach Sunday school age. As the children grow up and leave home, the church attendance of the parents begins to drop.
    4. The disengagement model assumes that like many other areas of social participation after middle age, church attendance declines.
    #Harvard M . Bahr, "Aging and Religious Disaffiliation," Social Forces, 1970.4957-71

    a stability of religious belief and church attendance over the life cycle, the only exception being a decline in church attendance among the very old.

    Blazer and Palmore report that religious beliefs and attitudes remain fairly stable over the life cycle with no significant increase or decrease. They did however find a gradual decrease in religious activity during the later years.
    older persons were more likely to engage in private devotions than younger age groups
    Apparently older persons compensate for some of their decline in religious activity which Blazer and Palmore found by engaging in private devotions. Perhaps the psychological studies which indicate a closure of personality and a turning inward on the part of older persons are true and can explain the increase in private devotionalism on the part of the older persons.
    #Dan Blazer and Erdman Palmore, "Religion and Aging in a Longitudinal Panel," The Gerontologist, 1976, 16:82-85.

    Riley and Foner, in their inventory of research on religion, observed that church attendance tends
    to decrease rather than increase in old age.
    Matilda White Riley and Ann Foner, Agingand Society, Vol. I: An Inventory of Research Findings

    Moberg also observed a pattern of declining church attendance among older person.
    #David 0. Moberg, "Religiosity in Old Age," The Gerontologist, 1965, 5:80.

    The 1975 Harris poll (see Table 1) indicates a low in church attendance between ages 18-24 and a fairly stable attendance pattern over the life cycle with a slight increase after the age of 55 and
    a slight decrease after the age of 80.7

    The Harris findings confirmed the earlier findings of Havighurst and Albreckt that women attend church more frequently and maintain a higher degree of religious participation for a longer period of
    time than men do.
    Robert J. Havighurst and Ruth Albreckt, Older People (New York: Log-mans Green, 1953), pp. 202-203.

    Other than for 18-24 year olds, the pattern of church attendance over the life cycle is fairly stable with a slight increase after age 55 and a slight decrease after age 80.
    The low point in church attendance for 18-24 year olds can perhaps best be explained by the fact that this is a period of transition in their lives from teenage to adult status. They are frequently moving away from their home communities to go into the service, attend college or to take a job. It takes time to become established in the new community and reestablish the same religious ties and commitments they had in their home community. The drop in church attendance and activity noted in many of the studies among the very old was probably related to poor health and a lack of available transportation to attend church services.

    Riley and Foner indicated that the older the person was, the more likely he/she was to express a belief in God.In every age category from the 18-24 to the 65 and over group, the proportion expressing
    a belief in God increases

    @Cox, H., & Hammonds, A. (1989). Religiosity, Aging, and Life Satisfaction. Journal of Religion & Aging, 5(1-2), 1-21

    Religious Development From a Life Span Perspective

    McFadden, S. H. (1995). Religion and well-being in aging persons in an aging society.
    Journal of Social Issues, 51(2), 145–160.

    longitudinal studies that measure aspects of religiousness in large samples of aging persons show consistency in the perceived importance of religion (Atchley, 1997a), public and private religiosity (Markides, 1983; Markides, Levin, & Ray, 1987), self-rated religiosity (Anson, Antonovsky, & Sagy, 1990), positive religious attitudes (Blazer & Palmore, 1976), and religious beliefs (Shand, 1990).

    Atchley, R. C. (1997a). The subjective importance of being religious and its effect on
    health and morale 14 years later. Journal of Aging Studies, 11, 131–141

    Markides, K. S. (1983). Aging, religiosity, and adjustment: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Gerontology, 38, 621–635.

    Markides, K. S., Levin, J. S., & Ray, L. A. (1987). Religion, aging, and life satisfaction: An eight-year, three-wave longitudinal study. The Gerontologist, 27, 660–665.

    Blazer, D., & Palmore, E. (1976). Religion and aging in a longitudinal panel. The Gerontologist, 16, 82–85.

    Narrative accounts of life stories and the lived-experience of aging give another view, with changes perceived in the importance of social expressions of religious piety (Pruyser, 1975), religious meditative practices (Thibault, 1993), relationships with religious institutions (Griffin, 1994), and the very idea of the sacred (Scott-Maxwell, 1983).

    Pruyser, P.W. (1975). Aging: Downward, upward, or forward? Pastoral Psychology, 24, 102–118

    Thibault, J. M. (1993). A deepening love affair: The gift of God in later life. Nashville,
    TN: Upper Room Books.

    Griffin, R. B. (1994). From sacred to secular: Memoir of a midlife transition toward spiritual freedom. In L. E. Thomas & S. A. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Aging and the religious dimension (pp. 31–50).Westport, CT: Auburn House

    Scott-Maxwell, F. (1983). The measure of my days. New York: Penguin Books.

    @ McFadden, S. (2000). Religion, Personality, and Aging: A Life Span Perspective (Vol. 67).
    Pan found a positive correlation between (a) age and religious activities, and (b) age and dependence upon religion. As age increases, religious activities and dependence upon religion increase.

    Pan, J.S., "Institutional and Personal Adjustment in Old Age," Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1954,85, 155-158.

    Stark found that personal religious commitment systematically increases with age.
    His study was designed to determine whether differences in religious commitment between young and old are attributed to aging, or whether these differences reflect a lower level of religiosity among the younger members of society. The four groups participating in the study included liberal Protestants, moderate Protestants, conservative Protestants, and Roman Catholics. The results indicated a systematic increase toward greater religious commitment with age for each group. He stated that "the effect of age seems to be not so much in what one believes, but in what one, does about what s/he believes.

    Stark, R., "Age and Faith: A Changing Outlook or an Old Process?" Sociological Analysis, 1968,29, 1-10.

    O'Reilly found that attendance rates of those aged 75 + were higher than the attendance rates of persons aged 65-74 years.16 He also found that the attendance rates of older women were higher than those of men in each equivalent age category.

    O'Reilly. C.T., "Religious Practice and Personal Adjustment of Older People," Sociology and Social Research, 1957.42, 119-121.

    Riley and Foner reported contrary findings. They found that  church attendance is generally maintained at a high-level among those ,in their 60's, but that it gradually declines in advanced old
    age. These findings suggest that this decline in attendance reflects the varied problems that predominate among the elderly. Physical capabilities, transportation availability, financial and economic problems, as well as other concerns, contribute to the declining participation in church activities.

    Moberg, D.O., "Religion in the Later Years," in A.M. Hoffman, ed., The Daily Needs and Interests of Older People (Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1970).

    Moberg, D.O., Spiritual Well-Being: Background and Issues (Washington, DC: White House Conference on Aging, 1971).

    Moberg, D.O., "Religion and the Aging Family," Family Coordinator, 1972,21,47-60.

    Blazer, M.D. and Palmore, E., "Religion and Aging in a Longitudinal Panel," The Gerontologist, 1976, 16, 82-85.

    Fichter found that weekly church attendance was higher among older people than among younger people

    Fichter, J.H., "The Profile of Catholic Religious Life," American Journal of Sociology, (1952), 58, 145-150.

    Marshall cautioned that "religious phenomena that are patterned by age may be a function of generational or cohort effect^."^'" The example he used is increased religiosity in later life. He stated that any number of explanations could account for this phenomenon.
    Included in the list were "aging and partially age-related factors, such as awareness of finitude, the persistence of cohort differences from earlier life, or generational experiences throughout life that are
    differentially arrayed by chort

    Marshall, V.W. Last Chapters: A Sociology of Aging and qting (Monterey, CA: BrwksICole, 1980).

    Arglye maintained that church attendance is one of the better  predictors of religiosity and religious behaviour; however, he found little agreement between church attendance and the process of aging
    per se.] He claimed that little is known about how attendance fluctuates during a person's life cycle.

    Argyle, M., Religious Behavior (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1959)

    Payne stated that although measures of religious attendance provide reliable estimates of attendance
    per se, the validity of these as measures of religiosity is qestionable.'There are no data to indicate how the elderly feel about their attendance, nor are there data that pertain to the context
    of participation (i.e., the reason why they are there).

    Payne, B.P., "Religiosity," in D.J. Mangen and W.A. Peterson, eds., Research Inrtruments in Social Gerontology: Vol. 2. Social Roles and Social Participation (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1982)

    Older adults are more likely to be involved in religious activities, whether institutional or private (Koenig, et al., 1999; McFadden, 2008; Payne, 1989)

    Koenig, H. G., Hays, J. C., Larson, D. B., George, L. K., Cohen, H. J., McCullough,
    M. E. (1999). Does religious attendance prolong survival? A six-year followup
    study of 3,968 older adults. Journal of Gerontology, 54(A), 370–376.

    McFadden, S. H. (2008). The “persistent problems” in the psychology of religion
    and aging: A view of the past and a look to the future. Journal of Religion,
    Spirituality & Aging, 20(1/2), 77–94. doi:10.1080/15528030801922020

    Payne, B. (1989). Religion and the elderly in today’s world. In W. M. Clements (Ed.),
    Ministry with the aging: Designs, challenges, foundations (pp. 153–174). New
    York, NY: Haworth