Saturday, June 24, 2017

The Journal of Legal Studies, Chicago style

司法行政部於民國三十二年改隸行政院 (行政院司法行政部)


Saturday, June 03, 2017

composed of, comprise

Our wine team is composed of devoted wine lovers who are some of the most respected professionals in the industry.

Our wine team comprises devoted wine lovers.
The trio comprised two violins and a cello.
The panel comprises experts from four industries.

The new book ___________ four sections.
The team ____________ Joe Black, Andrea Rogers, and Rabin Gupta.
The benefits package ____________ salary, health insurance, and three weeks of vacation.
Did you choose a phrase or a single word for your answers?

For each item, you may correctly use either "is composed of" or "comprises."

Friday, June 02, 2017

accompany by, accompany with

Accompany by usually refers to people, as in "he will be accompanied by his wife on the piano" or " the meeting".   Accompanied with sounds wrong in this context.

'Accompanied by' is used when one thing is in the company of another thing. Perhaps my fiancée example should be 'accompanied by' only, rather than what I said earlier - that it could be both. In general, use 'accompanied by' with people.

She was accompanied by a friend.

The less common accompanied with, on the other hand,  is synonymous with "in conjunction with"  and would be used of things, as in "he suffers from a massive inferiority complex accompanied with a burning desire to succeed".     (But accompanied by wouldn't sound wrong here, either).

'Accompanied with' is used when one thing is in some way linked to another. Perhaps the others are correct that this is a local thing, but I've certainly seen it used. Menus in restaurants often describe the food as 'sirloin steak accompanied with tartar sauce' or whatever. Also, when reading medical notes I often come across symptoms using 'accompanied with' - 'a sore head accompanied with back pain'. So, I think use 'accompanied with' with things such as these.

Thursday, June 01, 2017

Taiwan Legal Research Guide
Legal services comprise a vital component of trade and
commercial transactions, particularly given the increased importance of multinational
enterprises, intellectual property issues, as well as international mergers and acquisitions.

extend skills courses beyond the area of traditional litigation practice

et al., etc., and so on, and so forth, for example, for instance, such as

,for example, 
,for instance, 
, such as 
I can play quite a few musical instruments, for example, the flute, the guitar, and the piano.
I can play quite a few musical instruments, for instance, the flute, the guitar, and the piano.
I can play quite a few musical instruments, e.g., the flute, the guitar, and the piano.
I can play quite a few musical instruments, such as the flute, the guitar, and the piano.
the first three phrases have commas before and after them.
Such as does NOT have a comma after it

such as
The phrase such as can be used in the middle of a sentence without any commas.  Take a look at this:
Car companies such as Toyota and Ford manufacture their automobiles in many different countries around the world.
You may be wondering why there are no commas.  The answer is simple: the words after such as are necessary and essential to the meaning of the sentence.  If you take out those words, the meaning will change.

Let's take out such as:
Car companies manufacture their automobiles in many different countries around the world.
What does this sentence mean?  It could mean ALL car companies manufacture their automobiles in many different countries around the world.  This is not true because some companies produce their cars in just one or two countries.  Therefore, the phrase such as Toyota and Ford is necessary.  If these words are necessary, do not use commas.
Usually only for example and for instance can begin new sentences.  Each can begin a new sentence when the phrase is followed by a complete idea or sentence (not a list of items).
My father loves going to restaurants which serve exotic foods.  For example, last week he went to a restaurant which serves deep-fried rattlesnake.
My father loves going to restaurants which serve exotic foods.  For instance, last week he went to a restaurant which serves deep-fried rattlesnake.
When I go camping, I bring lots of things, for example, a fishing rod, matches, and a sleeping bag.
There have been many leaders in history who have tried to rule the entire world, for instance, Julius Caesar and Alexander the Great.
Do you have any hobbies, e.g., collecting stamps or baseball cards?
Food such as pizza and hamburgers are not really junk food; they contain a lot of protein and vitamins. (no commas are necessary)
Heesun has met many famous people.  For example, one time she met Jacques Chirac.  (there must be a comma after for example--not a colon!)
When I visit Korea, I want to go to many cities, such as Seoul and Taegu.
Evelyn has taken many psychology classes, e.g., Behavior Psychology 102, Child Psychology 223, and Group Dynamics 301.
I love old TV shows, for example, The Twilight Zone and Gilligan's Island.
Joyce has studied many Asian languages, for instance, Korean, Chinese, and Thai.
Juan loves rock musicians from the 1970s, such as Jimmy Hendrix and Janis Joplin.
I bought a lot of things in that shop, for example, games, toys, and flowers.
I bought a lot of things in that shop, e.g., games, toys, and flowers.

Don't use "and so on" directly after either of these.
don't "for example, and so on"
don't "e.g., and so on"
don't "that is, and so on".
If you do use "e.g." to list examples, you do not need to add "and so on" or "etc..." at the end of the list, because "e.g." indicates that your presenting a limited list of examples.  To say "etc..." and "and so on" at the end is redundant.

et al., 

The term "et al." is an abbreviation for the Latin term et alia that means and others, the others being people and not things. It is affixed after the name of a person, e.g., a researcher to indicate that additional people were involved in the work or were acting in the same manner. For example, in the sentence "The work was completed by Shimazu et al.," the term et al. indicates that Shimazu and others (his co-workers or colleagues) were involved in completing the work.

“et al.’ is a scholarly abbreviation of the Latin phrase et alia, which means “and others.” It is commonly used when you don’t want to name all the people or things in a list, and works in roughly the same way as “etc.” “The reorganization plan was designed by Alfred E. Newman, General Halftrack, Zippy the Pinhead, et al.; and it was pretty useless.”
The “al.” in this phrase needs a period after it to indicate it is an abbreviation of alia
but it is incorrect to put a period after “et.”

On the other hand, the word etc, the abbreviation of et cetera, means and the rest or and so forth. It is used at the end of a list to indicate that the list is not complete and only some of the involved items have been mentioned.
Further, when a list is introduced using "such as" or "e.g.," the use of the term "etc" is redundant.
Since e.g. indicates a partial list, it is redundant to add “etc.” at the end of a list introduced by this abbreviation.


Incorrect: It was reported that some metal ions such as zinc, copper, and vanadium, et al. were useful in the therapy for diabetes mellitus.

Correct: It was reported that some metal ions such as zinc, copper, and vanadium were useful in the therapy for diabetes mellitus.

Also Correct: Zinc, copper, vanadium, etc. were the metal ions reported to be useful in the therapy for diabetes mellitus.

In the above example, since the reference is being made to elements and not people the use of the term et al. is incorrect.

This is an abbreviation of the Latin et cetera, meaning 'and other things'. Some people say that it should not be used with lists of people, or to mean 'and so forth' when referring to events or actions: The children laughed, shouted, ran about, etc. However, its use in these contexts is well established, although (this is an abbreviation of the Latin et alii, meaning 'and others'). et al is more polite when referring to people

The more important question is whether you should use these abbreviations at all. They are useful for notes and on forms, but look out of place in ordinary writing; better to begin a list of examples with such as or for example, or to follow it with and so on, and so forth, or (with people) and others. Whatever form you use, make sure that you give some idea of what the other items might be.

In a sentence such as there are worms etc in the garden, etc could refer to almost anything: worms, beetles, woodlice, and so on suggests other creepy-crawlies, while: creatures such as worms, spiders, and frogs suggests a much wider range of wildlife. This means that you have to know what you mean: etc and its equivalents are often used when people are not sure, or cannot be bothered to think about, what they wish to include. Remember the c in et cetera is pronounced s. The et is sometimes incorrectly pronounced ek. Note also that etc and et al can be written with or without a full stop.

Avoid "etc."; use "for example", "such as", "among others" or, better yet, try to give a complete list (unless citing, for example, a list of products known to be incomplete), even if abstract. See also Strunk and White:
Etc.: Not to be used of persons. Equivalent to and the rest, and so forth, and hence not to be used if one of these would be insufficient, that is, if the reader would be left in doubt as to any important particulars. Least open to objection when it represents the last terms of a list already given in full, or immaterial words at the end of a quotation.

At the end of a list introduced by such as, for example, or any similar expression, etc. is incorrect. If
you say, "for example" or "like", do not follow this with "etc.". Thus, it's "fruit like apples, bananas and oranges". The "like" and "for example" already indicate that there are more such items.
When etc. is used at the end of a series (it should be used sparingly), set it off with commas.

The students sold homemade bread, candy, cake, etc., to pay for their trip.

and so on
so forth
And so on and so forth mean the same as etcetera (etc.).
with additional related or similar things mentioned (but not specified).
She told me everything about her kids and so forth.
I heard about problems at work and so forth.
He told me about all his health problems, including his arthritis and so on.
I need some help getting ready for dinner, setting the table, and so on.
It includes, for instance, what is a command, a prayer, a statement, a threat, a question, an answer, and so forth.

The words “such as” include the idea of a few examples, but not the total set of possible choices. Therefore, don’t use “such as” with “and so on” or etc. in the same sentence. It is redundant.
The words “and so on” are generally seen as being casual or spoken language, but not appropriate for research writing. Also, don’t use “like” to give examples.--- had better not to use and so on ---- use et al.,
The term “etc.” always has a period and is the abbreviation of etcetera . You may occasionally find it in published papers, but it is not recommended. --- had better not to use etc.

Phrases with “the following” usually introduce a list and have a colon, “such as/including/includes/ the following:”
Their observations include the following: (1) Generally, austenitic stainless steel weld metal
solidifies by primary separation of austenite or ferrite from the melt…
E J, Rao et al./Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics 27 (1997) p.145

Wednesday, May 31, 2017

 As the economy grew more complicated, the cant role of the government began to decline and a market mechanism began to replace the state

sit for the national bar examination

Tuesday, May 30, 2017

japan law school

It is theoretically a three-year course, on the assumption
that applicants do not necessarily have law degrees or
knowledge about the law but might have had rich and diverse
experiences they could bring into law.1" To adjust to the fact that
there are many who actually possess law degrees and need not
start from scratch, most law schools also provide a two-year
option. 6

Some law schools set different entrance examinations for three-year and two-year
courses: the former would require solid knowledge of law whereas the latter tries
to select people with diverse experiences and logical minds. Others admit students
to the three-year course, and then, once students are admitted, they have to
take examinations administered by individual schools testing their knowledge of
various legal areas. If they are approved by each school as sufficiently knowledgeable,
they may receive up to thirty credits, equivalent of one year at law
school, and may finish law school in two years instead of three. The ratio of
three-year students to two-year students varies from institution to institution. It
transpired that many smaller law schools end up having no three-year students at

All students expect themselves to become qualified lawyers, although
they have to pass bar examinations, spend twelve months
training at the Legal Training and Research Institute,10 and pass
the Final Examination in order to be properly qualified. The first
group will be graduating in March 2006, and the first new bar
examination will be administered in late May of that year.21

Kamiya, M. (2006). Structural and Institutional Arrangements of Legal Education: Japan. [Article]. Wisconsin International Law Journal, 24(1), 153-195.

Monday, May 29, 2017

away from pure legal theory and doctrine to professional skills training
black-letter laws
lawyers, and a shift in the work they do as they venture beyond traditional litigation into broader areas such as business planning and government lobbying.
transactional and international lawyers
The French granted Vietnam independence in 1954. With the division of the country into two halves, the south became the Republic of Vietnam (ROV), and the north became the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
Roughly eighty-five percent of Vietnam's Chinese population lived in the ROV, and despite an early, abortive "Vietnamization" drive, Chinese economic dominance prevailed during the twenty years of the Saigon regime(from 1955 to 1975).

Particularly during the Vietnam War (which the Vietnamese call the American War), the wealth of the "compradore bourgeoisie" in the ROV rapidly intensified: This was a time when opportunities for business came with the U.S. need for a trade and service network to supply its troops fighting in
Vietnam. The post-1964 years also saw an ROV government inclined to deregulate the economy and promote liberal market practices. Local Chinese businessmen were quick to seize these opportunities and expanded operations not just in their traditional strongholds of trade and services, but also in finance and light industries.... The political underside of such economic practice was the inevitable corruption of the power elite. In order tooperate... [the disadvantaged local Chinese] had to cultivate the  politicians and military leaders of the ROV. At the simplest level it was wining and dining them. But a more serious form involved the use of huge monetary bribes or offers of shares in businesses

Following the country's reunification in 1976, the revolutionary Vietnamese government singled out the entrepreneurial Chinese of thesouth as "bourgeois" and "an important part of world capitalism,"
arresting and brutalizing thousands and confiscating their property, along with that of their Vietnamese counterparts.

In March 1978, all private trade was banned in Vietnam. A few months later, the government introduced a new currency and rendered existing money holdings worthless, thus completing its campaign to transform Vietnam into a socialist society. Vietnamese authorities claim that this "campaign was not directed against any particular ethnic group." Nonetheless, a disproportionate number of Vietnamese Chinese were affected. Many former businessmen and traders were left "without any means of sustaining themselves."" Others faced forcible relocation to "new economic
zones."  As a result, many thousands of Chinese from the former ROV fled the country.

In 1986, after years of economic disaster and famine, and in the face of triple-digit inflation, unmanageable debt, and declining aid from Soviet bloccountries, the Vietnamese government launched a program of economic liberalization, known as doi moi ("renovation"), designed to
move Vietnam away from centralized planning toward a market-based economy.  The implementation of doi moi has been described as follows:
Since 1988, Vietnam has given free priority to maintaining macro-stability while concentrating its limited administrative resources on strengthening the institutional base of its emerging market economy in order to promote micro-stability. There has been no rush to privatize SOEs [state-owned enterprises] ... as in Eastern Europe. Instead, the promotion of micro-efficiency has focused on price liberalisation, on creating space for the growth of the private sector and, finally, on imposing market discipline on SOEs both by removing the soft budget constraint and by exposure to international competition.

The effects of doi moi, in particular the inflow of foreign investment, have been more pronounced in southern Vietnam than in northern Vietnam.
As of 1995, the Mekong Delta and Ho Chi Minh City had almost 30,000 private-owned enterprises, in contrast to roughly 3400 in Hanoi and Halphong."  Following familiar development patterns, doi moi has also benefited urban areas far more than rural areas, which by most accounts have experienced minimal improvement from marketization.
Economic liberalization in Vietnam has revived the entrepreneurial presence of the predominantly urban Chinese minority."'  Today, the Chinese in Vietnam cluster in Ho Chi Minh City (still Saigon to most Vietnamese), where they constitute about twelve percent of the population but control thirty to thirty-five percent of that city's commercial activity. For the moment, the Vietnamese government is openly encouraging the Chinese minority to play a substantial role in Vietnam's economic development, for example by engaging in joint ventures with the government and by bringing in foreign investment from their overseas contacts.
privatization (frequently of telecommunications enterprises or major utilities),cross-border offerings," or international mergers and joint ventures"
The law and development movement was born in the mid-1960s at leading American law schools such as Harvard, Stanford, Wisconsin, and Yale.
marketization-- refers to the whole spectrum of efforts toward privatization and contractualization of economic activity in developing and transitional economies, ranging from the replacement of a command economy with market mechanisms to typical "economic liberalization" measures (such as privatization, liberalization of investment and trade restrictions, and elimination of price controls

Sunday, May 28, 2017

US legal education

Weston, C. R. (2006). Legal Education in the United States: Who's in Charge? Why Does It Matter? [Article]. Wisconsin International Law Journal, 24(1), 397-423.
Japanese colonial rule
transmission of information that is available through codes or doctrinal texts.

Saturday, May 27, 2017

According to Samuel Huntington, the first wave of democratization was from 1828 to 1926; the second wave was from 1943 to 1964; and the third wave was after 1964, particularly during the 1980s.
developmental state

bureaucracy is embedded in a concrete set of social ties that binds the state to society and provides institutionalized channels for the continual negotiation and renegotiation of goals and policies

when embeddedness and autonomy are joined together can a state be called developmental.

the role of the state in industrialization.

External networks connecting the state and civil society are even more important.

the KMT has used state-owned enterprises (SOEs) as key instruments of industrial development.

East Asian developmental states began the post–World War II period with legacies of long bureaucratic traditions and considerable prewar experience in direct economic intervention. World War II and its aftermath in the Pacific region produced a very special kind of “massive societal
dislocation.”24 Traditional agrarian elites were decimated, industrial groups were disorganized and undercapitalized, and external resources were channeled through the state apparatus. The outcome of the war, including, ironically, American occupation,25 qualitatively enhanced the autonomy of these states vis-à-vis private domestic elites. The combination of historically accumulated bureaucratic capacity and conjuncturally generated autonomy placed these states in an exceptional position.

Create Time Series Dialog in SPSS

Time Series - 1 - A Brief Introduction

Time Series analysis

Time series regression in SPSS: Modeling AR1 process


Exogenous variables=independent
Endogenous variables =dependent

time series vs panel data

time series data --- only one country, one individual

panel data--- more than two countries, two individuals

Friday, May 26, 2017

latent growth curve modeling, Amos

Fitting a latent growth curve model


I have data from a seven wave panel study of family relationships. My variable of interest is the amount of parental affection exhibited towards children during adolescence. I have measures of parental affection towards children at children's ages of 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 years of age. I would like to fit a latent growth curve model to these data using AMOS. How do I do it?


This answer has been developed by Professor Edward Anderson in the Department of Human Ecology. We are grateful to him for allowing us to reproduce this answer.

Prior to setting up the model, you should consider several issues. First, how many time points do you have? In this example, you have seven time points. To ensure a properly identified and stable solution, your analysis should have four or more time points, though it is possible to fit some growth models with as few as three time points. If you have a three time point database, you may want to meet with a consultant to discuss the particulars of your model.

Second, as shown in the diagram below, you must connect each observed variable at each time point to the latent intercept and slope variables. The intercept variable-observed variable path coefficient values are fixed to 1.00. The slope coefficient values are allowed to be freely estimated in the initial model, with the exception of the coefficients for the first and last two time points. In the example shown below, the first time point's slope parameter is set to zero, and the last time point's slope parameter is set to 1.00. This coding frames the data so we can conceptualize the growth as being 0% complete at time 1, and 100% complete at the final time point. Thus, with this coding, the first panel of data collection is treated as the starting point for the growth curve.

However, there are several other ways to think about growth. For instance, in this example you are studying children every year from age 9 to age 15. You could choose to fix the slope parameters to be 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15. This coding would assume straight-line growth across each year of the child's life, so that the estimated intercept of the data ("time point 0") would be the year of the child's birth. This issue of coding the slope coefficients is not trivial because the interpretation of the estimated slope coefficients as well as the means and standard deviations depend upon what input coding was specified by the data analyst for the slope parameters. For more discussion of this issue, see Stoolmiller (1995).

Although there are a number of ways to set up latent growth curve models, experience suggests that the following method usually obtains model convergence. The model is designed to facilitate easy interpretation of the results. The steps to fit the model are as follows:
1. Launch AMOS.
2. Choose Plugins ---> Growth Curve Model. Enter the number of measures when you are prompted for the number of time points. In this example, you would enter 7 for the number of time points because you have data for parental affection at seven distinct points in time.
3. Choose View ---> Analysis Properties ---> Estimation tab. Check the Estimate Means and Intercepts check box.
4. Right-click on each of the seven observed variable boxes one at a time and select Object Properties. Click on the Text tab to name each of the variables to correspond to the relevant variable names in your external data file. Click on the Parameters tab to fix the intercept parameter; fix each observed variable's intercept value to 0.
5. Right-click on the latent variable circles (labeled ICEPT and SLOPE by AMOS) and select Object Properties. Remove the 0 constraints on the means. Fix the variance to zero for ICEPT and SLOPE.
6. Right-click on each of the seven residual variance circles and select Object Properties. Fix their mean values to 0 and set their variance values to 1.00.
7. For each of the paths connecting the residual variance circles to the observed variables' rectangles, right-click on the path arrow and select Object Properties, choose the Parameters tab, and remove the default 1.00 fixed value. Label each path with a unique name (e.g., EV1 for the first variable, EV2 for the second variable, etc.) by replacing the original value of 1.00 with the new parameter name.
8. Add two new residual latent variables to the ICEPT and SLOPE latent variables by clicking on the button labeled "Add a Unique Variable to an Existing Variable" on the AMOS toolbar. This button resembles a rectangle with a circle above it, with the rectangle and circle connected by a vertical line. Once this tool is selected, click on ICEPT and then SLOPE. This action should create latent variable residuals for ICEPT and SLOPE. Label these latent variable residuals Dev ICEPT and Dev Slope, respectively.
9. For the newly-created Dev ICEPT and Dev Slope latent variable residuals, fix their mean values to 0 and their variance values to 1.00. Next, replace the 1.00 values for the path arrows connecting Dev ICEPT to ICEPT and Dev Slope. Name the newly freed parameters SD_ICEPT and SD_SLOPE, respectively.
10. Move the covariance double-headed arrow between ICEPT and SLOPE from those original latent variables and instead have it connect Dev ICEPT and Dev Slope. Label it Cov_Icept_Slope.
11. Fix each of the parameter values for the arrows leading from ICEPT to the observed variables to the value 1.00.
12. Label each of the parameter values for the arrows leading from SLOPE to the observed variables. In the diagram shown below the parameter values are labeled b1 through b7.
13. Some growth models may require that you try starting values other than the AMOS default in order to fit the model in a reasonable numer of iterations. Symptoms of the need for user-specified start values may include failures to converge within the AMOS iteration limit (typically 500 iterations) or reports by the software of a non-positive definite fitted matrix, negative residual variances, or an otherwise inadmissable solution. To specify your own starting values for a parameter, name the parameter followed by a colon and the starting value. For instance, if you want to have the starting value for parameter b3 be .75, you would label the parameter b3:.75. The example shown below specifies starting values of .50 for each slope weight except for the first weight and the last weight, which are fixed to zero and 1.00, respectively. Important Note: Setting start values is optional; you should try AMOS's own default start values first and resort to user-specified start values only if AMOS cannot converge to a proper solution in a reasonable number of iterations.
14. Double-click on the Default Model label on the left-hand side of the AMOS Graphics window area. This action launches the Manage Models window. In the Model Name section of the Manage Models window, rename the model Full LGM. In the Parameter Constraints section of the window, type b1 = 0 and b7 = 1. These constraints force AMOS to consider the first time point to be zero units. The last time point is fixed to a value of 1.00, so the intermediary slope parameter values can be interpreted as percetanges of growth as a function of time, as described above. Click the Close button to return to the AMOS graphics drawing interface.
15. Select File ---> Data Files. Select the external data file. Click OK.
16. Save your work by choosing File ---> Save As and save your model file to an appropriate location on one of your computer's disk drives.
Your model diagram should appear as follows.

amos4 1

Each of the EV variables represents the standard deviations of the residuals for the observed variables. SD_ICEPT and SD_SLOPE refer to the standard deviations of the intercepts and slopes, respectively. Mean_ICEPT and MEAN_SLOPE are the mean values of the cases' intercepts and slopes. COV_ICEPT_SLOPE refers to the correlation between the slopes and intercepts.

If the model fit is successful, you should see results such as these appear in your AMOS Graphics output window.

amos4 2

Before interpreting the results on the model diagram, you should first verify that the model fits the data well on an overall basis. This is in fact the case, as the chi-square test of overall model fit was not statistically significant (chi-square = 14.655 with 18 DF, p = .685).

After you determine that the model fit the data acceptably, you may interpret the parameter estimates shown in the path diagram above. The mean intercept value of 60.93 indicates that the average starting amount of parental affection towards adolescents was 60.93 units. The standard deviation was 17.42. The mean slope value was -8.91, and the standard deviation of the slope was 11.82. The correlation between the intercepts and the slopes was -.07. Although the means and standard deviations were statistically significant when tested with the null hypothesis that their true values are zero in the population from which this sample was drawn, the same cannot be said for the correlation between the slopes and the intercepts: the r of -.07 was not different from zero.

Substantively, the finding that the standard deviation of the intercepts is statistically significant suggests that there is non-trivial variation in the amount of parental affection received by different children at the initial age when the affection measures were taken. Furthermore, the amount of parental affection appears to lessen over time for all adolescents as shown by the mean slope value of -8.91. This latter finding is qualified, however, by the significant variation in slope values, indicating that individual adolescents' experiences of affection amounts may be quite varied over time. Interestingly, the amount of affection shown an adolescent at the initial time of measurement appeared to be unrelated to changes in affection over time, as illustrated by the non-significant correlation of -.07 between the slopes and intercepts.

The parameter estimates for the slope-variable path coefficients are also of interest. These values track the pattern of the growth curve from the starting point of zero to the ending point of 1.00 over the intervening time points. Examination of the estimated values suggests a slower than expected growth curve through the first four time points with an accelerated growth component at time points five and six. If growth were constant across time, one would expect a value of .50 (50%, or the half way point between 0 and 1.00) instead of the observed value of .39. In fact, one can compare the expected value under a linear or constant change model with the observed values, as shown in the table below.
Time Point
Expected Value
Observed Value
1/6 = .167
2/6 = .335
3/6 = .500
4/6 = .667
5/6 = .833
6/6 = 1.000
1.00 (fixed)

Appearances, however, can be deceiving. Although there is a growth spurt between the third and fourth time points, the remaining time points appear to provide a reasonable approximation of a linear or constant change function. It is possible to use AMOS's nested model comparison features to test whether a linear growth function fits the data in the context of the latent growth curve model. To perform this test, double-click on the Full LGM model label on the left-hand side of the AMOS Graphics Diagram window to launch the Manage Models window.

In the Manage Models window, click on New. Name the new model Linear Change. In the Parameter Constraints segment of the window, enter the expected values for the linear constraints, as shown in the figure below. 
amos4 3revised

Each of the intermediate time points' parameter estimates are set equal to their expected values under the linear change function. Including the Full LGM model name before the constraints allows AMOS to fit the new Linear Change model subject to the constraints of the original model; this allows AMOS to directly compare the two models using a nested chi-square test. If the test is not statistically significant, one can conclude that the more parsimonious linear change model fits the data equally as well as the more complex Full LGM model. The AMOS test for this hypothesis was not statistically significant, (chi-square = 8.338 with 5 DF, p = .139), so it is reasonable to conclude that a linear or constant rate of change is present in the population of adolescents from which this sample was drawn.

There are many possible models that can be fit within the latent growth model framework.
For more information about latent growth analysis, see the following references:

McArdle, J. J. & Epstein, D. (1987). Latent growth curves within developmental structural equation models. Child Development, 58, 110-133.

Stoolmiller, M. (1995). Using latent growth curve models to study developmental processes. In J.M. Gottman (Ed.) Analysis of Developmental Change. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

longitudinal analysis

SEM , Amos
latent growth modeling, a type of mixed-effect or random-effect model, to treat each respondent's change as linear growth with respect to time.
Latent growth analysis is the best techniques

Lineal Mixed Models, as those available in SPSS, STATA, SAS, etc

In America, the Juris Doctor program is usually both the first and final degree in law. Post-J.D. degrees (such as the LL.M., S.J.D., and their equivalents) are supplementary programs where foreign jurists can capitalize on, their own backgrounds in the study of American law.
the U.S. Juris Doctor (JD)

U.S. educational institutions have given foreign nationals extensive exposure to U.S. laws and ideas about law. Probably the most significant elements in this process are the burgeoning LL.M. programs at U.S. law schools. Many among the top tiers of U.S. law schools have provided these one-year graduate study programs for young and mid-career lawyers from around the world. LL.M. programs typically include a basic course that provides an introduction to U.S. law for foreign students, and several more specialized elective courses, most of which typically focus on some field of U.S. law and include both foreign LL.M. students and American J.D. students.
law firms that offer international legal services are quite limited in number.Furthermore, many of the law firms that handle international legal matters employ foreign lawyers.National support in these firms comes from local attorneys who earned their advanced degrees in foreign countries, primarily the United States.174 Such a powerful foreign influence indicates that the local legal education system fails to produce lawyers capable of dealing with international matters without external support.The legal education system must improve its ability to produces students who can better serve local businesses and people involved in international matters.

An increasing number of foreign lawyers represent local companies in arbitrations and mediations with foreign companies.192 Local lawyers are viewed as unable to provide appropriate protections for domestic companies in transactions with foreign companies.193

One possibility is to replace the current system with a J.D.-like system as seen in the United States. An alternative to a systematic changeover is to adopt a dual system as Japan did in their reforms. Under this model, Taiwan would introduce the J.D. system alongside the current system as well as
policy governing the relationship between the two systems.
On-the-Job Training Program
on-the-job professional training
in-service master program
executive degree programs
day session , a night session , a master's program , a continuing education master's program , and a continuing education night college

 a day college , night college , master ' s program , continuing education master ' s program , and continuing education bachelor ' s program

 continuing education master ' s program and continuing education night college

extension education program

Thursday, May 25, 2017


in the university or at the university

'In' is used to describe the exact location of where someone or something actually' is/was' or does/did something. I live 'in' a house. The TV is 'in' the sitting room. It is often used instead of 'inside'. Where's the sugar? It's in/inside the cupboard.

We use 'at' for more general location. I study 'at' University (Usually without 'the' unless your're referring to one specific university.') is correct because you are not referring to your exact physical location.

"I study at university" , "I study at the university of..." or "I study at (the name) University"
The rule is to use "at", just like when saying "I work at (name of the firm or institution)" rather than "in", in these cases.

Wednesday, May 24, 2017

law courses

Administrative Law

Company Law
Commercial Instrument Law
criminal law (General Principles of Criminal Code, Specific Offences in the Criminal Code, Code of Criminal Procedure)
civil and commercial law (General Principles of the Civil Code, General Principles of Obligations,
Specific Types of Obligations, Property in the Civil Code, the Family Part of the Civil Code,Succession in the Civil Code, Code of Civil Procedure,
Constitutional Law
corporate governance
competition law
consumer protection law

economic law

financial and economic law
financial and tax law
financial law

government procurement law

international law
Insurance Law

public law

Maritime Law

securities law

WTO legal issues

legal and economic relations between Taiwan and mainland China
legal aspects of biotechnology
legal problems concerning electronic commerce and telecommunications

The mandatory courses for first-year students include
Constitutional Law
General Principles of Civil Code
General Principles of Criminal Code (I)
General Principles of the Obligations Part in the Civil Code (I)

For the second-year students, the mandatory courses are
General Principles of the Obligations Part in the Civil Code (II)
Specific Kinds of Contract
Property Part in the Civil Code
Family and Inheritance Parts in the Civil Code
General Principles of Criminal Code (II)
Specific Types of Offenses in the Criminal Code
Administrative Law
Advanced Administrative Law Group (Case Studies on Administrative Law, Advanced Administrative Law, and Specific Topics of Administrative Law).

For the third-year students, the mandatory courses include
Code of Civil Procedure
Code of Criminal Procedure
General Introduction of Commercial Law and Company Law
Negotiable Instruments Law
Insurance Law
Maritime Law

For the fourth-year students, the required courses are the
Integrated Discussion on the Substantive and Procedural Aspects of Civil and Commercial Laws Integrated Discussion on the Substantive and Procedural Aspects of the Criminal Laws
Integrated Discussion on the Substantive and Procedural Aspects of Administrative Law.

In addition to these, there are three divisions in under the College of Law, namely, the Division of Legal Science, Division of Judiciary, and Division of Financial and Economic Law.

For the Division of Legal Science and the Division of Judiciary, students must take two of three courses from Political Science, Economics, and Sociology.
They must also take Legal History, Public International Law, Private International Law, and Jurisprudence.

For the Division of Legal Science, students must further take
Introduction to Anglo-American Law
Anglo-American Contract Law
Anglo-American Torts

For the Division of Judiciary, they must further take
Law Governing Non-Litigation Matters
Practical Training for Civil Trial
Practical Training for Criminal Trial

For the Division of Financial and Economic Law, students must take
Economics and Compulsory Enforcement Law or Bankruptcy

They must also take five of the following courses
Trademark Law
Patent Law
International Trade Law
International Economic Law
General Principles of Taxation
Specific Topics of Taxation
Securities Exchange Law
Fair Trade Law
Environmental Law
Banking Law
Financial Administrative Law
Labor Law
Introduction to Intellectual Property Law
European Business Enterprises Law
Trust and Pension Law
Land Law
Copyright Law
Consumer Protection Law
Finance and Taxation Law
Corporate Governance
Mainland China Legal System
European Union Law
Economic Analysis of Law
Agricultural Eco-technology Law
Arbitrational Law
Financial Law
Competition Law and Its International Perspective
WTO Legal Issues.

Constitutional Law
Civil Code
Criminal Code
Code of Civil Procedure
Code of Criminal Procedure
Administrative Law
Compulsory Enforcement Law
Commercial Law
Private International Law
Chinese Composition.
During Japan colonial rule, the first university, Taihoku (Taipei) Imperial University, the predecessor of National Taiwan University, was founded in 1928 and started to provide legal education in Taiwan.[1] From 1931 to 1945, 40 persons graduated with law degrees from the above university. After the retrocession of Taiwan to the Nationalist government in 1945, the law department of the National Taiwan University started to provide legal education in 1946. Gradually, many university which retreated from China to Taiwan in 1949 started to reopen its campuses and provided legal education in Taiwan.[2] From1928 to 1990, there were eight institutions which provided legal education, including undergraduate and graduate programs (master and Ph.D. programs).
  (Lo,2006) 劉恆妏. (2004). 王泰升2008
Under martial law and authoritarian rule (1949-1987), young people were not encouraged to learn law which was considered closely associated with politics and thus a challenge to the KMT regime. Many political leaders with law degrees were involved in opposition politics and brought about democratization in 1980s. From 1946 to the end of 1980s, KMT regime had controlled legal education in Taiwan for 45 years during which KMT ideology, Chinese nationalism, state power, and suppression of individual liberty were taught in classes to justify political legitimacy of authoritarian regime. The curriculum focuses on 民商事法和刑事法 and ignored民主法治關係密切的憲法和行政法所佔比例太小 (Lo,2006; Winn & Yeh, 1995) 王泰升2008
    In 1985, Taiwan allowed the establishment of private universities. Since the 1994 education reform “expansion of higher education”, the number of law departments, law colleges, and law graduate schools has been increasing rapidly.[3] 王泰升2008

[1] The majority of law students at Taihoku (Taipei) Imperial University were Japanese. is the. In 1905, the first department was established in Beijing National University in China. Winn, J. K., & Yeh, T.-c. (1995).王泰升, 2008
[2] For example, Soochow University set up law department in 1945. A school for military law was founded in 1957. National Chengchi University set up a law department in 1961. Fu Jen Catholic University set up a law department in 1963. Chinese Culture University set up a law department in 1966. Tunghai University set up a law department in 1980. 王泰升2008
[3] Many senior vocational schools and junior colleges were upgraded as universities/colleges and started to offer law degrees. 

 In 1985, Taiwan allowed the establishment of private universities. Since the 1994 education reform “expansion of higher education”, the number of law departments, law colleges, and law graduate schools has been increasing rapidly.  王泰升2008

Many senior vocational schools and junior colleges were upgraded as universities/colleges and started to offer law degrees.

Tuesday, May 23, 2017

electronics sector
electronics and information technology accounting for 35% of the industrial structure
 Industry in Taiwan primarily consists of many small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) with fewer large enterprises.
information technology industry

The structure of the industry in Taiwan includes a handful of companies at the top along with many small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) which account for 85% of industrial output.

In order to promote industrial research and development, the government began establishing science parks, economic zones which provide rent and utility breaks, tax incentives and specialized lending rates to attract investment

These SMEs usually produce products on an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) or original design manufacturer (ODM) basis, resulting in less resources spent on research and development.[84] Due to the emphasis of the OEM/ODM model, companies are usually unable to make in-depth assessments for investment, production, and marketing of new products, instead relying upon importation of key components and advanced technology from the United States and Japan.
1996 年開始開放大學設立,
1995 年3 月,政府推動全民健康保險

Monday, May 22, 2017

nine-year compulsory education in 1968



 to save foreign exchange is through reduction in imports and increase in exports.

Sunday, May 21, 2017


Nike 休閒鞋 Wmns Air Force 女鞋
型號: 857666-001
品名: Air Force 1 07 Mid LTHR PRM

Nike Wmns Air Force 1 07 女鞋
型號: 857666-100
品名: Air Force 1 07 Mid LTHR PRM

Developmental state

state-led macroeconomic planning


(1905 年生於江蘇蘇州,1926 年畢業於上海聖約翰大學化學系,1993 年12 月24 日逝世,享年89 歲。 )
(一) 主導改革、決策方面,最主要的:幣制改革、預算制度建立、賦稅改革。
(二) 協調或支持通過的重要改革與決策:農地改革、外匯貿易改革、19 點財經改革方案、獎勵投資條例、加工出口區的設立、新竹科學園區設立等等。

(祖籍湖南邵陽人,1903 年生於江西南昌,1925 年畢業於南洋大學(交大前身)電機工程科,1963 年1 月13 日逝世,享年61 歲。 )
(一) 負責規劃光復初期臺灣經濟的重建。
(二) 確定未來經濟發展的方向。
(三) 第一期四年經建計畫工業及交通運輸部門計畫的設計與推動。
(四) 推動外匯貿易改革,確立出口導向政策。
(五) 主持十九點財經改革方案。
(六) 訂頒獎勵投資條例。

(1910 年生於南京,1930 年畢業於中央大學物理學系,1934-37 年在英國劍橋大學物理研究所進修, 2001 年5 月31 日逝世,享年92 歲。 )
(一) 研擬十九點財經改革方案。
(二) 起草獎勵投資條例。
(三) 推動投資環境改善。
(四) 出口導向政策的推動。
(五) 加工出口區設立。
(六) 計畫家庭及人口政策的推動。
(七) 人力資源的培育與教育政策的調整。
(八) 十大建設財源籌措。
(九) 研擬高科技產業發展方案與推動。

(1913 年生於山東省蓬萊縣,1934 年哈爾濱工業大學電機系畢業,2006年2 月15 日逝世,享年93 歲。 )
(一) 電力的重建與發展-普及率高達99.7%。
(二) 十大建設:交通建設-高速公路、鐵路電氣化、桃園國際機場、北迴鐵路、台中港與蘇澳港的規劃。
(三) 能源-核能發電的興建。
(四) 重化工業-中鋼、中船、石化工業建設的推動。
(五) 克服台美斷交的衝擊、穩定台美經貿關係、建立國人信心。
(六) 第二次世界石油危機期間採取以價制量政策,安度危機,並以機械、電機、電子、資訊及精密工業等為策略性產業,納入第八期四年經建計畫(1982-85)發展重點,全力推動。
(七) 推動高科技產業發展( 其中多項與李國鼎共同研擬、決策與推動)
1. 成立工業技術研究院(1973),成為臺灣高科技人才及產業孕育的搖籃。
2. 積極策劃積體電路(IC)工業發展(1974),做為未來電子、資訊等相關高科技產業發展的引擎。
3. 邀請在美國對IC 技術學有專精的海外學人,組成電子技術顧問委員會(1974),協助臺灣技術引進的工作,以縮短研發時間,早日建立臺灣的電子工業。
4. 召開全國科學技術會議(1978-84),研定「科學技術發展方案」,推動八大重點科技—能源、資訊、材料、自動化、光電、生物科技、B 型肝炎防治與食品。
5. 設置新竹科學園區(1980),作為發展高科技產業基地。
6. 成立資訊工業策進會(1980),推廣資訊的應用。
7. 成立科技顧問組(1980),邀請世界一流科學家參與審查科技方案,並提供建言。
8. 成立「聯華電子公司」(1980)與美國RCA 同步量產4 吋晶片,奠定IC發展基礎。
9. 實施「加強培育與延攬高科技人才方案」,使任用高科技人才更富彈性。
10. 1983 年開始籌劃超大型積體電路的建設,於1986 年成立的臺灣積體電路公司(即稱台積電),成為世界最大的IC 代工廠。

(1914 年生於浙江省奉化,1934 年清華大學畢業,1944-47 年在哈彿大學及倫敦經濟學院進修經濟三年,2000 年10 月4 日逝世,享年86 歲。)
(一) 籌措九年國民教育經費。
(二) 賦稅改革方案的有效執行,包括實施加值型營業稅。
(三) 建立中央銀行為「銀行之銀行」,發揮中央銀行應有的功能。
(四) 建立外匯市場與貨幣市場,並為外匯自由化及利率自由化奠立基礎。
(六) 確立「自由化、國際化、制度化」為經濟發展基本原則,推動經濟發展全面自由化。
(七) 將教育經費提高到憲法規定的15%。
(八) 落實執行解除戒嚴、開放黨禁、解除報禁、開放人民前往大陸探親,以及制定第一屆中央民意代表自願退職條例,以便新民意代表的產生。

Saturday, May 20, 2017

發展型國家(developmental state)


  • 政治高層具有全力支持經濟發展的堅定政治意志,而這意志來自於落後國家抵禦外侮而形成的現代民族主義,亦即民族主義構成落後國家菁英追求發展的動力
  • 經建部門,即一個有能力規劃並推動發展、且以發展為使命的經濟官僚體系。發展的優先性必須在政策協調上顯現,即政治高層的支持使得在不同領域政策的協調上,經濟發展的考量多半能夠得到優先的位置。
  • 經濟成長的成果能夠較為平均的為社會大眾所分享,才能確保這發展目標的優先性能得到社會長期的支持。
  • 以整體產業發展為制度使命的經建官僚體制
  • 官僚體系須有與產業界雙向溝通的體制,並且具有學術界稱之為「鑲嵌自主性」的特性,即官僚體系以整體產業發展為目標,政策決策不受個別既得利益的影響,此為「自主性」的部分;但為了產業政策的有效性,有必要與業界建立雙向溝通的管道,有利於官方理解產業真實情況,擬定可行的政策,同時也有利於政策的傳達與施行,因此這政策過程是「鑲嵌」於產業中

Taiwan Economic Development


Economic reconstruction (1945-1953)
Taiwan's economy suffered severe damage during the Second World War. KMT government which retreated to Taiwan in 1949 focused on rebuilding and protecting agricultural and infant domestic industries through foreign exchange controls and trade restrictions (??). In 1953, land reform (Land-to-the-Tiller Act) was implemented to make farmers the owners of their own fields.  幣制改革, the government actively promoted agricultural and industrial construction and the reconstruction of the transportation network, while at the same time it implemented land reform. Priority was given to the development of the textile and electric power industries, so as to increase agricultural and industrial production.
惡性物價膨脹, 臺灣在1946至1949年6月三年半之間,平均每年物價上漲922%


誠如前文所說,臺灣光復初期物價大漲,人民對當時使用的舊臺幣完全沒有信心,錢一到手趕快將它用掉,多放一點時間就會貶值。因此,在1949 年初,當時臺灣省政府財政廳長嚴家淦向省主席陳誠報告,舊臺幣無法維持,建議改革幣制,廢舊臺幣發行新臺幣。不過為爭取人民對新臺幣的信心,必須要有充足黃金或外匯做準備。估計發行新臺幣2 億元,需黃金80 萬兩做準備,但臺灣銀行金庫既無外匯,更無黃金。於是陳誠主席親自前往大陸面見蔣中正總統,報告臺灣為穩定物價,要實施幣制改革,為鞏固幣信,需要黃金作準備,請中央支援,獲得蔣中正總統同意。結果,中央政府撥給80 萬兩黃金,作為發行新臺幣的十足準備,並另借外匯1,000 萬美元,供進口調度之用。所以臺灣在1949 年6 月15 日實施幣制改革,廢除舊臺幣發行新臺幣,而且是限額發行,當時額度是新臺幣2 億元,並成立新臺幣發行監理委員會,邀請民意代表主持,每月底檢查發行額及黃金存量並公告,以取信於民。若僅改革幣制而不採取有效配合措施,其效果將有限,因此,臺灣銀行創辦高利率存款及黃金儲蓄存款以資配合。高利率到什麼程度,現在卡奴向銀行借款的年利率是18%,高得驚人。當時優利存款一月利息7%,按複利計年息更高達125%,這種利率下的存款,存100 元,一年下來連本帶利是225 元,比現在卡奴的18%,高了5、6 倍。這些還不夠,還創辦黃金儲蓄存款,當時
黃金一市兩是新臺幣280 元,存款人每存入新臺幣280 元,存滿一個月後就可以提領黃金一兩。當時大陸運來臺灣黃金,估計約300 萬兩。臺灣銀行先後賣出約200 多萬兩收回新臺幣約6 億元。臺灣銀行創辦優利存款及黃金儲蓄存款,其目的在收縮通貨,對物價穩定產生積極作用。
幣制改革(1949)誠如前文所說, 臺灣光復初期物價大漲,人民對當時使用的舊臺幣甚至沒有信心,錢一到手就趕快將它用掉,擔心多放一點時間就會貶值。因此,在1949年初,當時臺灣省政府財政廳長嚴家淦向省主席陳誠報告,舊臺幣無法維持,建議改革幣制,廢舊臺幣發行新臺幣。不過為爭取人民對新臺幣的信心,必須要有充足的黃金或外匯做準備。估
臺幣發行監理委員會,每月底檢查發行額及黃金存量並公告,以取信於民。同時,臺灣銀行創辦高利率存款及黃金儲蓄存款。高利率到什麼程度,現在卡奴向銀行借款的年利率是8%,高得驚人。當時優利存款一月利息7%,按複利計年息是125%,這種利率下的存款,存100元,一年下來連本帶利是225元,比現在卡奴的18%,高了5、6倍。這些還不夠,還創辦黃金儲蓄存款,當時黃金一市兩是新臺幣280元,存款人每存入新臺幣28元,存滿一個月後就可以提領黃金一錢。當時大陸運來臺灣黃金, 估計約三百萬兩。臺灣銀行先後賣出約二百多萬兩,收回新臺幣約6億元。臺灣銀行創辦優利存款及黃金儲蓄存款,其目的在收縮通貨,對物價穩定產生積極作用。

陳誠先生擔任臺灣省政府主席時,推動土地改革,分三階段進行:即1. 實施三七五減租,2. 公地放領,3. 實施耕者有其田。特別強調的是三七五減租。以前佃租都是50% 以上,一個佃農把土地租來種植作物生產後,要將收穫量一半以上歸地主,剩下的不到50%,要花費在肥料、種籽、勞力、資金,還要付利息,佃農幾乎沒有錢可賺,佃農生活甚為艱苦,也無力改善生產技術,提高產量。當時政府要改善農民生活,提高農業生產,先實施三七五減租,地租由過去的50% 減到37.5%。過去的佃租是每年收穫量的50% 歸地主,所以生產量增加,繳的佃租也提高。可是改革後是按1948 年生產量的37.5% 計算佃租給地主,剩下的全部歸佃農所得。也就是以後每年佃農繳給地主的佃租是按1948 年產量的37.5% 計算,固定下來。佃農不但第一年拿到62.5%,第二年增產了,增產的部分全部是佃農的所得,所以農業增長很快速。然後實施公地放領和耕者有其田,即政府將持有的農地賣給佃農,大地主將其持有超過政府
規定面積的農地,也要賣給佃農,其地價按1948 年收穫量的2.5 倍計算,分十年償還,每年25%,比地租還便宜,佃農當然踴躍購地。所以在1950 年代及60 年代,臺灣的農業生產每年增加5%,全世界不到3%,增產率很高。

第一期四年計畫研擬期間,社會上有二派主張,一派主張是計畫經濟,因為大陸時代經濟一直在管制,到臺灣也要繼續管制下去;另一派認為臺灣經濟發展一定要走自由化這條路。兩派爭論不休,後來有認為國父的民生主義既不是計畫經濟,也不是自由經濟,而是「計畫性自由經濟」。何謂「計畫性自由經濟」,在民間力量沒有建立起來的時候,政府多做事,由政府主導經濟發展,並建立市場機制;待民間力量壯大,市場機制逐漸形成,就由民間按市場機制運行。所以在第一期四年計畫序言中開宗明義說,新興計畫以民營為原則,以臺塑生產PVC 塑膠為例,原為公營事業臺肥與臺公司要生產。當時筆者所服務的經安會工業委員會研究認為這是極有前途的計畫,但因在全世界屬於新進的技術,風險很大,而且臺灣市場小,早期不合經濟規模,因此建廠要快,成本必須最低,而且要有能力推廣,公營事業沒有辦法在市場上競爭,所以一定要由民間經營。後來由王永慶與趙廷箴合夥投資,成立臺灣塑膠公司(當初成立名為福懋塑膠公司)負責進行。但該公司並無專業人才,就由工業委員會專家及邀請公營臺肥公司人力共同幫忙規劃設計,並爭取美援貸款。後採購機器設備,招開
國際標,結果是日本廠商得標,而美國反對,臺灣用美援的錢,怎麼去買日本機器,美國國務院提出抗議。後來工業委員會說服美國,因其價格比日本貴了一倍。重點是買美國設備成本高,根本無法生存競爭。日本為何便宜呢?派員去日本察看的結果,日本已有一個小工廠一天只做4 噸PVC,現在照原設計模型再做一個而已,不用另行設計。而美國是大量生產,做如此小規模,從新設計,成本當然高,說服美國後決定買日本機器設備。建廠完成以後生產出來的塑膠粉、塑膠粒銷路有限,不能完全賣掉,如不全力開工成本更高,好在臺塑迅即投資新設南亞塑膠公司,用臺塑PVC 加工做塑膠布、塑膠杯、塑膠筷、塑膠雨衣、雨鞋等,再一步步打開市場。因此,台塑設備不斷擴充,不僅合於經濟規模,而且在二十年前臺塑就成為世界第一大的PVC 塑膠工廠。如果當時不是堅持由民間經營的話,絕沒有今天的臺塑。

外匯貿易改革於1958 年開始實施,有以下三大重點:
(一) 新臺幣大幅貶值後,實施單一匯率維持12 年未變。
改革前的1 元美金兌24.78 元臺幣,貶值到40 元,貶值約50% 強。改革前的匯率雖稱複式匯率,實際上多達一百多種,極為複雜,廠商事前不知道適用那種匯率,已到非改不可的時候。改革過程,先改為雙元匯率,至1961 年改為單一匯率,1 美元兌40 元臺幣,一直維持到1973年2 月升為38 元兌1 美元。
(二) 自消極限制進口,改為積極鼓勵出口。
(三) 解除部分進口及外匯管制。出口增加後外匯收入多了,就將原有的進口及外匯管制,部分解除。
很多國內外學者專家都認為,該次外匯貿易改革,是臺灣自管制經濟走向自由化經濟邁出一大步,是重要的轉捩點。也是從1958 年至今五十多年,臺灣出口如此大幅擴張,它是最大功臣之一。

臺灣自然資源極為貧乏,光復初期工業也極落後,所需能源、農工原料幾全賴進口供應,而出口以糖、米為主,且受耕地面積及氣候影響,增加有限,故年年出現鉅額入超,幸在1951-65 年間有美援物資支援,解決了外匯短缺問題。

1949 年6 月15 日實施幣制改革
自1953 年開始實施第一、二期經濟建設4 年計畫,其重要策略即為「以農業培養工業、以工業發展農業」。在此策略下,農業方面實施耕者有其田、改進農業技術、提高生產效率、增加農業生產;充分供應農產品,維持低廉之農產品價格與工資水準培養良好的經濟發展環境。並以剩餘農產品及農產加工品出口,賺取外匯支持工業發展所需要原料及機器設備之進口。在工業方面確立兩大原則:凡可以增加出口或減少進口,對國際收支有貢獻之工業,優先發展,亦即充分利用國產原料及進口原料,發展進口替代工業;凡屬可以民營之事業,盡量鼓勵民間投資興辦。
自1949 年起推動了多項影響深遠的重大改革與措施。包括農地改革、幣制改革、稅制改革、及實施外匯管制等。並選定電力、肥料及紡織工業等3 項工業為優先發展工業。
美國經濟援助自1951 年開始到達,加速重建工作進行
因外匯短缺, 如何運用稀少的外匯, 維持出口貿易運轉為核心考量, 複式匯率, 政府藉著外匯的分配來達到鼓勵, 培養國內進出口工業的發展, ---在此資源分配的體系下, 政治, 經濟力量的集中化, 幾乎是不能避免的結果 (maybe 進口替代期)
1949年6月15日, 台灣省政府進行貨幣改革
1950年6月25日韓戰爆發。戰爭發生之後, 美國開始對台灣提供軍事及經濟援助。美援幫忙負擔台灣的財政支出, 特別是軍事支出。台灣銀行對府部門放款的壓力減輕, 才又能夠控制貨幣的發行額,物價也終於穩定下來
1950 年韓戰爆發,美國把台灣納入圍堵中共體制的一環,美援開始抵達,局勢才慢慢穩定下來
從1945 年到1952 年可說是「混亂調整時期」
1953 年政府開始實施「第一期四年經建計畫」,大部分學者分析台灣經濟發展多以此年為開始
1950年 美援、土地改革、進口替代政策之實行
1950 年代以農業為主的經濟發展階段,主要實施進口替代策略。當時是從三七五減租、耕者有其田…等土地改革政策開始,提高傳統農業的生產力,除了供應內需,更希望能「以農業
經濟重建階段 (1949〜1952)
運用美國的經濟援助,開始實施第一期四年經濟建設計畫 (1953)
1945〜1953 增產與安定措施, 幣制改革 : 發行新台幣 (1949),並辦理優利存款措施,用以抑制通貨膨脹,力求經濟穩定, 土地改革 : 激勵增產意願,增加農業生產
1949--頒布新台幣發行辦法, 幣制改革
外匯短缺, 使台幣不能貶值
1949, 375減租
1953, 耕者有其田
1950年6月25日韓戰開始, 美援1951年開始直到1965年
土地改革後, 農產豐收. 除供應全台外, 尚有剩餘供出口, 換取外匯, 俾進口工業原料及機器設備
由於農產出口情況看好, 傳統農作物更改為高價值農作物, 剩餘農產出口改為農產品的加工品出口
1950 年代追求安定與自給自足:1950 年代,經濟安定與糧食生產為施政首要目標。為此,政府積極利用美援促進經濟發展,並採用關稅與進口管制等措施扶植國內工業;實施土地改革,以鼓勵糧食生產,安定糧食價格,並維持社會安定;同時,發展勞力密集型進口替代產業,以降低對進口的依賴,減少外匯需求。
於戰後重建後,1953 年開始實施第1 期經建計畫‧ 實施土地改革,鼓勵農業生產,並維持經濟安定‧ 發展勞動密集型進口替代產業以降低貿易赤字
1950 年代,二次大戰結束後,台灣積極展開重建工作,政府採取「以農業培養工業,以工業發展農業」,一方面推動土地改革,加速農業生產;另方面培育勞力密集型輕工業,奠定工業發展基礎,使台灣經濟迅速起飛,此一時期平均每年經濟成長率達8.4%
,1949 年起推動多項重大改革與措施,如三七五減租、公地放領、耕者有其田、改革幣制、稅制、實施外匯管制等措施,以增加生產,平抑物價。
1952 年重建工作完成後,1953 年起推動有計畫的經濟建設開始,就將創造就業機會列為第一要務。

Import Substitution (1954-1960) 
    KMT government adopted import-substitution program to develop Taiwan’s labor-intensive light industries, e.g. textiles, cement, glass, fertilizers, food, plastic products, through high tariffs, multiple foreign exchange rates, relaxing foreign exchange controls, import controls, rebates of import duties, and setting up manufacturing facilities. Exporting agricultural products help earn foreign exchange. Importing raw materials or semi-finished products and machinery to produce consumer goods to replace imports in the domestic market establish a foundation for industrial development.

政府於1950 年代中期,即採取了以出口為導向的政策


至1960 年代正逢國際經濟繁榮及美國主導自由貿易政策,臺灣把握此有利機會出口迅速擴張,自1961 至80 年的20 年間臺灣出口增加123 倍,由入超轉變為出超


至1950 年代後期,整體經濟發展已面臨若干困難,包括:
(一) 臺灣本身市場狹小,進口替代工業之市場趨飽和,導致工業成長率減緩。
(二) 農村中仍存在大量隱藏性失業人口,進口替代工業在市場有限下無法創造大量就業機會及解決嚴重失業問題。
(三) 進口替代雖減少消費品進口,但所需資本設備及原材料之進口卻隨之大幅增加;另一方面,主要出口品之農產及農產加工品之出口,卻因農地擴張限制增加緩慢,鉅額貿易逆差仍然存在。
(四) 在各種進口替代措施下,若干不具比較利益或非必需品、奢侈品等產業同受保護,造成資源配置扭曲,並造成消費者負擔。
鑑於上述問題,並考慮臺灣經濟發展之條件,政府在1957 年初研擬第二期四年計畫時,乃改弦易轍,放棄強調進口替代工業發展之政策,代之以發展出口工業之政策,以擴張出口帶動經濟發展。為達成目標,自1950 年代後期起,政府即進行多項改革措施,包括:外匯貿易改革方案,十九點財經改革措施、頒布《獎勵投資條例》及《加工出口區設置管理條例》等。

通貨膨脹,不得不採取緊縮措施,犧牲經濟成長。雖經濟快速成長與物價的穩定,是每個國家經濟發展所追求的目標,但無法同時達成;1961-72年12 年長時期同時達成經濟快速成長與物價穩定的雙重目標,在世界經濟發展史上,還是首例,故被顧志耐教授稱為「經濟奇蹟」。

1953 年開始實施第一期經濟建設四年計畫,農業方面,改進農業技術提高生產效率,並以剩餘農產品及農產加工品出口,賺取外匯支持工業發展所需之原料及機器設備進口;工業方面,則確立了發展進口替代工業的目標。為達成目標,政府採取關稅保護、管制進口、實施複式匯率與外匯管制及限制設廠等強力的產業干預與保護措施。經過兩期四年計畫的實施,經濟情況已有顯著改善。惟因此時期國內所得低,儲蓄少,美援扮演支應投資的關鍵角色。1951 年至1965 年間,美國每年經援我國1 億美元,不僅彌補我國國際收支逆差,更協助農工原料、生活必需品及機器設備能夠充分進口,使工業生產迅速增加。
保障國內公營企業的成長, 強化及保謢政府資本及資人資本的累積
台灣接收了日本在1950年代末期讓出的輕工業及次級品市場 (包括技術移轉)--成為台灣當時發展輕工業的發展基礎
節省外匯, 培養國內的民生工業, 除肥料及紡織工業外, 尚包括許多國內市場需求較多, 加工過程簡單, 且所需資本不多的輕工業(農產品加工, 塑膠, 水泥, 機械, 合板, 家用電器品,
保謢及鼓勵措施: 外匯管制, 保護關稅, 進口許可, 複式匯率,限制設廠, 減免所得稅,
進口替代減低台灣經濟對貿易的依賴 (過去過度依賴貿易)
從過去偏重對日本輸出的食品加工業, 轉變為紡織品, 橡膠, 木製品, 皮革製品, 腳踏車的進口替代工業上
農業人口比率減少, 製造業人口比率上升,
發展勞力密集產業,以減少進口 (替代進口)
以國民經濟再生產對內循環為主導發展時期 (進口替代)
依賴美援階段 (1953〜1960)
從1951年開始,到1965 年6 月底止,前後14 年半的期間,台灣接受美援總數14 億8 仟多萬美元,平均每年約1 億美元
可看出台灣發展成功的關鍵在於1958 年政府當局開始一連串改革措施 -- 這些措施基本上都是要吸引外資、促進出口,並鼓勵國內儲蓄與投資
政府希望藉由嚴格的貿易管制,提供國內產業發展的空間 政策:管制進口、分配進口所需外匯、高關稅
1965 採行出口擴張政策及設立加工出口區
實施嚴格且複雜的外匯貿易管制政策, 採行關稅保護措施
進口替代時期的企業可憑著政府的干預及保護, 獲到優厚利潤而生存

因外匯短缺, 如何運用稀少的外匯, 維持出口貿易運轉為核心考量, 複式匯率, 政府藉著外匯的分配來達到鼓勵, 培養國內進出口工業的發展, ---在此資源分配的體系下, 政治, 經濟力量的集中化, 幾乎是不能避免的結果
政府干預, 造許多負面效果, 生產過剩, 進口管制, 高關稅, 土地政策及土地使用上的限制,
公營金融體系有所偏倚的放款授信政策, 造成出口產業受到許多阻礙,
1950 年代初期,台灣工業係以農、林等初級加工為主
1950 年代後期,整體經濟發展已面臨若干困難,包括:進口替代工業的市場趨於飽和,致工業成長率減緩;失業問題仍無法有效解決:因進口資本設備及原料大幅增加,但農產品及農
產加工品的出口卻因農地擴張限制減緩,致仍出現鉅額貿易逆差等問題。因此,政府在1957 年擬定第二期四年計畫時,即開始檢討進口替代工業發展有其侷限,乃改弦易轍,代之以發展出口工業之政策,以擴張出口帶動經濟發展。政府為拓展出口及達成經濟自立成長之目標,自1958 年開始採取一連串的財經改革措施。
實施「外匯貿易改革方案」及「外匯貿易管理辦法」(1958 年):將多元複式匯率逐步簡化為單一匯率,並將新台幣陸續大幅貶值,自1 美元兌換新台幣24.78 元貶為40 元;放寬進口限制;鼓勵出口(出口所得外匯給予100%結匯證、擴大出口退稅範圍、減少出口管制與手續等)。
臺灣在1950 年代採行的「進口替代」政策獲致一定績效,然由於臺灣內需市場不大,很快就達到飽和,為求經濟進一步發展,政府將經濟政策轉型為出口導向政策及出口擴張

1950 年代的進口替代政策,促使勞動密集工業快速發展,改變了臺灣勞動力供給條件,造成勞動力不足。為讓經濟成長持續,除生產技術必須升級外,產業結構也必須隨之改變,故政府於1973年開始推動「第二次進口替代」政策,發展重化工業,以自行生產之化纖、塑膠及鋼鐵原料,提供中、下游出口產業。

Rapid Export Growth (1960s)
Taiwan adopted export promotion program to aggressively exported manufactured goods. Government eased import and tariff regulations to enable private enterprises to purchase raw materials and technology from abroad. After 1965 special export-processing zones were set up in major port areas where foreign firms built plants and utilized cheap labor force and their products were exported for sale elsewhere.
之前進口替代具濃厚政府保護色彩, 到1957年後期, 漸生資源扭曲的經濟危機, 部分產業受到過度保護, 產生超額利潤, 相互間compete投資, 造成狹小的國內市場迅速飽和, 形成嚴重的生產過剩, 利潤比率大幅下降;貸款來源十分有限, 只有美援和銀行, 民間高利貸盛行, , 造成一般民營企業負担甚重; 進口替代所需中間原料和生產設備, 仍需依賴進口, 外匯短缺, 生產過剩引發投資停滯, 必須開拓新市場, 放寬金融管制, 使資本獲得新興利潤, 為解決外滙短缺問題, 必須增加出口, 使進口替代時期所保護發展的輕工業, 進一步取得擴張機會
由於前述各項改革的有效執行 (1950s),至本階段已產生顯著效果。該等改革,一方面解除部分不必要的管制措施,降低保護,使市場機能恢復,以價格調節供需,並創造新的投資機會;二方面大幅貶低新台幣至合理的價位,將消極的限制進口,進而改為積極的鼓勵出口;三方面採取財政與金融措施,鼓勵儲蓄、投資與出口。此外,加強人力培育,將國民教育自六年延長至九年,並積極擴展職業技術教育,以培養經濟發展所需之人力。因此,自前階段進口替代建立的勞力密集工業,轉向成出口工業,並獲得快速成長,帶動整體經濟蓬勃發展。
美援於1965 年6 月30 日停止,但由於政府採取有效政策,出口迅速擴張




1960s,資本主義國家正值大幅擴張, 有利我國對其出口製造品, 且其急於向海外投資發展
外資以投資或投術合作方式進入台灣, 利用台灣便宜勞力
台灣製造便宜成衣, 再透過美國百貨公司, 將成衣分銷
以國民經濟再生產對外循環為主導發展時期 (出口擴張)
設置加工出口區,拓展出口 (出口擴張)
擴大市場,賺取外匯 政策:台幣貶值、改行單一匯率、出口免稅及退稅制度、設立加工出口區、維持進口限制措施
而隨著過內市場的飽和, 到1960年代進口替代工業已面臨生產過剩的窘境,政府隨即採取鼓勵出口的政策,以過剩的輕工業
1961–1972,是典型的四小龍快速成長期間,稱為「自力成長與經濟起飛時期四小龍「經濟起飛」時期。在長達12年期間推動外匯改革 (unified ??),尤其在1960 年7 月1 日達成單一匯率
1960 年9 月訂定「獎勵投資條例
1966 年在高雄港設立「加工出口區」,吸引外人來台灣投資設廠。由於相當受歡迎,很快達到飽和,於是又選定台中潭子與高雄楠梓來增設兩個加工出口區
日本的紡織和電子公司為了利用台灣低廉工資和突破美國限額限制,紛紛將耗費勞力多的生產製程搬到台灣,加工後運回日本;或將半成品、零件運到台灣加工裝配,貼上台灣製造標記,再轉銷美國(2 )。
日、台、美三角貿易結構的形成 : 引進日本的資本、機械設備與原料零件,利用台灣相對低廉且豐富的勞動力進行加工製造,再出口到美國市場
,美援於1965 年中止
實施單一固定匯率制度,   頒布「獎勵投資條例」(1960) : 以租稅減免作為獎勵投資、促進出口手段, 設立加工出口區 : 高雄 (1965); 潭子、楠梓 (1968)
1965加工出口區, 設立在港口都市, 簡化官方手續, 將原料送到此處, 便宜勞力, 完成加工製品, 再出口, 運用稅稅及奬勵投資手段, 吸引跨國企業
台灣在1960s獲致了大量國外私人資本, 足以應付美援的中止
1960年代, 經濟奇蹟, 經濟成長黃金時代
在1960年代末期, 台灣已走到工業化國家的行列
1960 年代, 推動輕工業出口擴張: 1960 年代,發展重點轉而為發展勞動密集之出口導向產業,以利用台灣低廉的勞力,並拓展國際市場。為此,政府積極改革外匯與租稅制度,制定「獎勵投資條例」,並於1966 年設立台灣第一個加工出口區。在世界經濟蓬勃發展的帶動下,台灣出口快速增加,逐漸成為經濟成長的發動機。
1960s: 推動輕工業出口擴張,  鼓勵儲蓄、投資與出口,‧ 發展新農業產品,‧ 發展出口導向產業,設立加工出口區
1960 年代工業發展已具相當基礎,政府積極發展出口工業,並於1966 年設置第一個加工
1960 年代政府成立加工出口區,利用低廉勞力及政策獎勵,吸引國外的資金及技術,紡織、雨傘、鞋等勞力密集的輕工業快速興起
從1960 年代以來,政府積極推展出口導向政策
1960 年代初期台灣出口產品以農產加工品為主
1960 及70 年代台灣經濟發展呈現「高儲蓄率- 高投資率- 高經濟成長」的經濟良性循環模式。政府
自1960 年代開始,即積極鼓勵國民儲蓄,以加速資本形成,並透過租稅減免方式獎勵投資,提升經濟成長潛能。
1968 年起開始推動九年國民教育
1961 年後政府開始大力推動出口擴張,逐步降低管制與保護的程度,恢復市場機能,以促進民間企業的競爭能力。政府採取的措施,主要歸納為:
1. 新台幣兌美元貶值,並維持低估水準,以利於出口拓展。
2. 對儲蓄、投資與出口,採取財稅、金融的優惠措施。
3. 對進口仍加以某些抑制,亦即對國內相同的產業給予國內市場
4. 國內若干產業的設立,必須經過特許的程序,而加以限制。

加速經濟發展方案是在1960 年公布,其作用在加速經濟成長,俾在美援
1. 將以往為應付非常狀態的措施盡量予以解除,使一切經濟活動正常化,以恢復市場機能。在過去通貨膨脹及物資缺乏時期,所採取的經濟管制包括物價管制、進口管制及外匯管制、投資限制等,都影響市場機能的運作,而且在積極管理下就成為腐敗貪汙的溫床,必須革除。
2. 以國民儲蓄作為經濟發展的主要資金來源;並整頓租稅,控制預算。國防費用按固定幣值凍結,使增加的所得,能多用於投資,投資才能大幅增加。
3. 創立資本市場,確立獎勵辦法、調整金融體系,進一步放寬外匯貿易管制,期能使新臺幣自由兌換。可見在1960年就希望臺幣自由化兌換,但到1980年代20多年後才實現。
(二) 頒布《獎勵投資條例》

1950 年7 月韓戰爆發,美國除派第七艦隊進駐臺灣海峽外,並自是年底恢復對我國經濟援助,至1965 年6 月底的15 年間,共援助約15 億美元,相當當時GDP 的6%。美援除解決臺灣當時外匯及資金短缺外,更對臺灣的物價穩定、經濟建設、技術人員培訓及政策建議,均做出重大貢獻。由於臺灣政府有效利用美援,經濟成長快速,所得與儲蓄大幅提高。在美國援助的眾多國家中,臺灣是少數利用美援有效的國家之一,而與以色列與希臘同被美國判定「有自力成長能力」的三個國家,而於1965 年6 月底,第一批被停止美援。

The Second import substitution (1970s)
In 1973, Ten Major Construction Projects were launched to promote capital-intensive heavy industries such as steel, petrochemicals, shipbuilding, and auto manufacturing. KMT government also worked to improve Taiwan’s infrastructure.
1950 年代的進口替代政策,促使勞動密集工業快速發展,改變了臺灣勞動力供給條件,造成勞動力不足。為讓經濟成長持續,除生產技術必須升級外,產業結構也必須隨之改變,故政府於1973年開始推動「第二次進口替代」政策,發展重化工業,以自行生產之化纖、塑膠及鋼鐵原料,提供中、下游出口產業


因應國際經濟劇變由勞力密集轉向重化工業發展時期(1973-1986 年)
能源危機階段 (1973〜1981)

宣布「十九點財經改革措施」(1960 年):鼓勵儲蓄與節約消費;建立資本市場;改善民間投資環境;扶植民營工業;改進投資設廠取得工業用地等。
制定「獎勵投資條例」(1960 年):以租稅減免獎勵儲蓄、投資與出口;簡化行政程序,以加強工業用地之取得。
訂定「外銷貸款通則」(1962 年)
制定「加工出口區設置管理條例」(1965 年):成立高雄、潭子及楠梓等三個加工出口區,提供園區內廠商較「獎勵投資條例」更優惠之稅捐減免利益。

發展上游的基礎產業及精密產業,以生產原料與機器設備為主要替代目標 政策:明訂石化、機械、造船和鋼鐵為主要發展產業;公營事業直接介入投資、限制私人企業設廠及管制進口
1973 年10 月第一次能源危機發生,1974 年所展開的「十大建設」:包括建立鋼鐵、石化、造船等重工業,並推動興建核能電廠、高速公路、國際機場、國際港口以及鐵路電氣化等基本公共設施。
1978–1980 年的第二次能源危機,政府乃於1979 年頒訂「經濟建設十年計畫」,選定機械工業 (包括一般機械、電機、精密與自動化機械等) 與電子資訊工業 (包括電腦軟體、微電腦及週邊設備、數據通訊及相關電子工業) 等「策略性工業」,亦即將來所要鼓勵發展的重點工業。至於鋼鐵、石化等能源密集度高的重工業,其發展目標僅以充裕供應國內需求為重點。
1974 十大建設之推動
1973/74 年爆發第一次國際石油危機,1979/80 年為第二次石油
1970 年代, 發展基礎工業與重工業: 1960 年代末期,出口快速擴張,帶動對機器設備與中間原料的需求;經過多年的工業化之後,台灣產業技術更為先進,有利於較高層次的基礎與重工業發展。為此,1970 年代,政府積極推動「十大建設」,除充實鐵路、機場、港口、電力等基礎建設外,並積極發展石化、鋼鐵等進口中間財替代產業與資本密集產業。在此種策略的運用下,台灣有效降低對國外中間財供應的依賴,促進產業快速升級。
1970s 發展基礎工業與重工業: ‧ 推動「十大建設」,改善基礎設施‧ 建立中間財產業, 發展基礎與重工業
1970 年代
儘管歷經二次石油危機(1974 年及1979 年經濟成長率各為1.86% 及8.01%),惟在政府積極發展重化工業,並擴大公共投資,經濟仍持續維持穩健擴張,此一時期平均每年經濟成長率達10.1%。
1970 年代政府推動「十大建設」,石化、鋼鐵、造船等重工業奠定根基。
1973 年政府推動「十大建設」,進行高速公路、鐵路電氣化、桃園國際機場、煉鋼廠、核
1978 年推動「12項建設計畫」,除硬體建設與重化工業外,尚包含新市鎮開發、各地文化中心等社會文化與福利相關基本建設。
1980 年代以前,政府著重金融體系穩定性,對金融體系多方管制;
1978 年將匯率制度改為機動匯率制度
到了1970 年代,工廠勞工的抗爭行為開始日漸增加,而政府則持續極力的予以鎮壓
宣布實施浮動匯率制度(1978 年):1973 年放棄12 年來新台幣兌美元40:1 的固定匯率,調整為38:1,1978 年又調整為36:1,讓資源得以回流臺灣,幫助內部建設,同時放棄釘住美元之固定匯率,改採機動匯率,央行可視市場狀況機動調整。
成立外匯市場(1979 年):央行指定臺灣銀行、華南銀行、彰化銀行、第一銀行以及中國國際商業銀行,共組外匯交易中心,從此匯率能每日及時反應。
3. 實施「銀行利率調整要點」(1980 年):加強銀行公會調整利率的功能,開始推行利率自由化。

1980年代之前, 國家機器掌控總體經濟發展, 政府管制資本, 產業政策, 租稅優惠, 發展出符合國家利益的策略性部門, 帶動經濟提昇
台灣在1980年代以前, 私人資本的影響力, 無法滲透入國家決策層級中, 完全由國家來進行主導經濟政策
1980年代來自國際和國內的壓力,逼使台灣解除管制, 放手讓市場來引導資源配置, 90年代, 台灣走向市場國際化和自由化的過程
受中美斷交(1979 年1 月1 日)的衝擊,民間投資意願低落,而政府財政呈現赤字,已無能力再像第一次石油危機時,推動類似十項建設大規模的政策與公營事業大量投資,以彌補民間投資的不足,以致整體景氣下滑
政府於1973 年宣布,1974 年執行的「十項重要建設」

有1. 中山高速公路,2. 鐵路電氣化,3. 北迴鐵路,4. 臺中港,5. 擴建蘇澳港,6. 中正國際機場。
(二)能源:7. 電力—核能發電尤其中山高速公路、中正國際機場及鐵路電氣化,使臺灣的交通建設走上現代化。而能源建設是核能發電,使能源朝向多元化發展,且可降低污染。
有8. 一貫作業鋼鐵廠(中鋼),9. 大造船廠(中船),10. 石化工業。重化工業方面可說是從勞力密集產業走向重化工業為主的一個轉捩點。十大建設也奠定了臺灣經濟邁向現代化的基石。


Emergence of Taiwan's Hi-tech Industries: 1980s 
Hsinchu Science and Industrial Park was established in 1980 to facilitate the development of hi-tech industries and foster scientific and technological innovations. Also, economic liberalization made surplus-accumulating Taiwan open up its domestic economy. Wages rose and the New Taiwan dollar appreciated against the US dollar. Taiwanese industries began to invest abroad.
1984 年,俞國華就任行政院長,宣布將以「自由化、國際化、制度化」為經濟發展的基本政策。包括:1. 外匯自由化,2. 金融自由化,3. 投資自由化,4. 貿易自由化,5. 公營事業民營化。於1984 年提出來,郤受到相當大的阻力,1985 年政府成立「經濟革新委員會」,邀請產學界及官方代表參加,溝通研究,最後提出50 多項革新建言,才使經濟全面自由化逐步落實。由於全面自由化的實施,因而進入WTO 世界貿易組織,與國際接軌;所受到的衝擊,大


至1979 年第二次石油危機爆發,1983 年由於美國刺激景氣措施有效經濟開始復甦,帶動工業國家的景氣復甦, ,1983 年隨著美國經濟復甦,臺灣對美出口快速增加
宣布經濟自由化,推動金融、貿易自由化, 同時著手展開公營事業民營化, 對中國大陸投資與貿易的開放
1980 年代下半期,在新台幣大幅升值的有利對外投資的條件下,臺灣已有能力對外投資,
尤其1984 年政府全面推動經濟自由化、國際化、制度化,1987 年7 月15 日解除戒嚴,同年
11 月2 日開放國人赴大陸探親,1988 年1 月1 日解除報禁,啟動民主改革的列車,民間的活力被大量釋放出來。
設立新竹科學園區 (1981),發展資訊、半導體產業
Check tw privatization
在1980 年代初期,有關高科技產業發展的政策、方向已完成規劃,及其周邊機構、法令規章等都制定好了,近20 多年來享受發展成果。

,1985–1992,台幣由40 對1 美元升值到25 對1美元,稱為「台幣大幅升值與調適時期
1980年以後 目的:解決出口擴張與進口替代雙軌策略衍生的問題-通貨膨脹、美國要求開放市場及立院打破特權的壓力, 政策:國際化、自由化,取消進口管制、降低關稅,開放服務業市場;頒佈產業升級條例取代獎勵投資條例
技術密集產業拓展時期(1987-1991 年),推動資訊、光電、自動化、能源等重點產業
1980 年設置「新竹科學工業園區」 --
政府在這段期間開始提出「自由化」與「國際化」為整體經濟政策的大方向. :大幅降低關稅,擴大開放進口,解除外匯進出限制
政府干預放鬆時期 : 1970與1980年代
; 1989年取消美元中心匯率制度,匯率完全由外匯市場之供需決定; 修訂「管理外匯條例」,放寬外匯管制 (1987)
開放證券商的設立 (1988)
1980 年代推動經濟自由化與發展技術密集產業: 1980 年代早期,在成功的外貿政策推動下,台灣貿易順差不斷擴大,總體經濟失衡日益嚴重。為此,政府採取經濟自由化與國際化作為經濟發展新主軸,希望透過市場機制的有效運作,導正各項失衡問題。同時,台灣也開始運
1980s:推動經濟自由化與發展技術密集產業, ‧ 設置新竹科學工業園區, ‧ 改善產業結構,擴大研發支出, ‧ 致力經濟自由化與國際化, ‧ 擴大國內需求,改善貿易失衡
1980 年代政府推動金融自由化、貿易自由化及國營事業民營化等政策,積極放寬管制與保護,並於1980 年設置第一個科學工業園區,產業逐漸朝科技化發展。在這時期,台灣平均每年經濟成長達7.7%。
1980 年代以來,製造業結構朝高科技方向快速發展;其中,台灣資訊與通訊科技(ICT)產業已成為全球生產重鎮,2012 年積體電路(IC)產業產值高達新台幣1.63 兆元,其中,晶
服務業自1980 年代中期起,隨著國民生活水準的提高而蓬勃發展
1980 年代初期, 因第二次能源危機,導致民間投資意願不振,加以公共投資大幅減少,超額儲蓄不斷增加, 其占GNP 比率於1986 年時達到20.4% 的高峰。為矯正經濟失衡現象,政府積極推動自由化政策,新台幣的大幅升值與關稅的持續降低,促使民間消費快速成長, 儲蓄率由39.4% 的高峰降至1990 年代的平均28.7%;
1980 年代, 台灣國民所得快速增加,為提升國民生活品質,政府於1984 年推動「14 項重要建設計畫」,除積極進行電信現代化、台北都會大眾捷運系統建設等純經濟性建設外,並
自1980 年代後期起,由於經濟實力的大幅增長,以及自由化與國際化的快速推展,台灣已由以往的資本接受者,蛻變為亞洲重要的對外投資國之一,台灣對外直接投資超越來台直接投資,成為資本淨流出國家;
1980 年代以後, 隨著經濟發展轉趨成熟,政府轉而重視金融效率,積極推動金融自由化與國際化,賡續推動下述一系列金融改革
1989 年銀行法修正, 開放民間申請設立銀行,政府為提升金融業國際競爭力,積極鼓勵銀行整併,以擴大經營規模, 金融機構家數逐漸減少,2012 年底銀行家數為39 家。
1989 年以前,銀行利率由政府決定;1989 年實施利率自由化,大幅提升資金使用效率
1989 年廢止以美元為中心的中心匯率制度,匯率由市場供需決定
1982 年制定「強迫入學條例」,台灣正式進入九年國民義務教育的新里程。
台灣在1950 年代初期至1980 年代中期的勞力密集產業發展階段,透過引進國外生產、管理及行銷技術,並與國內勞力、資本有效配合,製造業的國際競爭力顯著提升,並為下一階段的產業轉型奠定良好基礎
1980 年代中期以後為技術與知識密集產業發展階段,在民間創新能量不斷擴充,以及政府政
1980 年開始,服務業開始騷動不安:對於受保護而相對落後的服務業,政府並無規劃藍
80 年代後期全面自由化
1980 年末期開放歐美菸酒進入,但仍須由菸酒公賣局銷售,即對外做出讓步之餘,仍然延
續而未改革此公賣體制 (菸酒公賣局於2002年台灣加入世貿之後,終於改制為一不再具有特權的公司。)
從1986 年開始,在美國壓力下開始自由化。因為這些因應措施,如內部特許市場的開放,及對外貿易金融面的逐步開放等,就發展階段而言也是必要的自由化的措施,即是往市場進一步開放走,與新自由主義的大方向相配合
1980 年代末期開始的自由化初步的推動
台灣經濟從1986 年開始在各方壓力下開始自由化,包括內部特許市場的開放,及對外貿易金融面的逐步開放。經濟上以官僚體系為主體逐步應變,但在自由化的方向上受到新自由主義很大影響。
臺灣光復初期,由於物資缺乏,失業問題嚴重,物價波動劇烈,故政府採行許多管制措施。1980 年代以後,臺灣經濟發展已有良好基礎,已具備經濟自由化條件,在外在壓力(對美貿易順差擴大)及內在情勢的推動下,政府開始全面推動各項經濟自由化措施

1980 年代以前為臺灣經濟第一次(局部)自由化,進入1980 年以後為第二次(全面)自由化,2002 年以後我國正式成為世界貿易組織(WTO)成為第144 個會員國,我國工業、服務業產值及貿易均大幅成長,此階段我國與全球經貿體系連結更深,如何與國際接軌、提升競爭力,已成為此階段政府推動各項重要經濟措施之重點,故本研究將2002 年以後作為第三階段經濟自由化。

進入80 年代,臺灣國民生產毛額不斷大幅增加,但國內需求增幅卻緩,致生產大過國內需求,產生超額儲蓄,若不予改善,經濟將難以持續發展。同期間,出口大幅增加,但進口增加幅度卻減緩,巨額貿易順差產生了下面的問題:
1. 貿易摩擦:臺灣對外貿易出超不斷擴大,且過度集中於美國,1987 年我對美出超金額達164 億美元,成為美國縮減貿易入超的第二報復對象。美方乃不斷要求我國開放市場、降低關稅、新台幣升值等。
2. 新台幣升值壓力:隨著貿易出超不斷擴大,外匯供過於求,新台幣面臨升值壓力。1987 年底,新台幣對美元升值42%,居四小龍最高。
3. 貨幣供給大幅增加,對物價膨脹形成潛在壓力:過去外匯管制嚴格,貿易出超的外匯均由中央銀行收購。1987 年起,外匯管制大幅放寬,除匯入款外,幾乎已全部解除外匯管制。1987 年底,外匯存底高達767 億美元,中央銀行釋出強力貨幣1 兆9,000億元,雖採取各項沖銷措施,但貨幣供給增加率一直高達30%上下,形成物價膨脹壓力。

1983 年底,當時的經濟部部長趙耀在結束訪美行程後表示,我國今後必須要靠高級科技的引進來帶動工業升級

1984 年俞國華先生出任行政院院長,馬上宣示「自由化、國際化、制度化」的原則。孫震教授在自己的著作中解釋這三個名詞:自由化是指解除政府管制、減少政府干預,讓經濟活動回歸市場由價格機制引導;國際化是指貨物、勞務、資金與技術跨越國界,自由流動,也可以說是一國自由化在國際上的延伸;制度化是指健全各種法規制度,使自由化與國際化得以在有效地「遊戲規則」下順利運行,制度化是自由化與國際化的基礎,制度化不健全不僅會使自由化和國際化的效果受到限制,甚至會造成對經濟的傷害

1985 年初,出口不振、投資低落,經濟成長不佳,使政府決定於同年6 月成立「經濟革新委員會」,邀請多位產、官、學的專家參與討論,為期半年。同年11 月,委員會報告書共7 冊出爐,明確揭示「自由化、國際化、制度化」為往後臺灣經濟政策走向的最高指導原則,自由化已經成為全國朝野之共識

關稅調降: 因貿易出超擴大,臺灣自1975 年即有降低關稅的措施。1979 年起幾乎每年與美國進行貿易諮商,持續不斷降低關稅。1980 年平均名目關稅率由1979年的39.14%降至31.17%,減稅項目達1,604 項。其後1985 年、1987~1989 年均有大幅降稅,1989 年平均名目關稅率更已降至9.65%(平均實質關稅率為6.28%)。

降低進口管制: 臺灣對口商品一向有嚴格的管制,根據「海關進口稅則」規定,進口商品可以概分為禁止、限制、可進口三大類別。1980 年代以後,國貿局將部分無敏感性的產品授權辦理押匯的銀行核發進口簽證,後來更逐漸增加免簽證產品的項目,逐漸放寬「進口簽證」之管制。

大幅放寬外匯管制(1987 年):央行於2 月進一步放寬僑外資及匯出管制;5 月16 日立法院通過修正管理外匯條例;7 月15 日全面實施新外匯制度,貿易收支完全開放,資本帳定額開放(個人及企業每年可自由匯出500 萬美元,匯入5 萬美元)。
(2) 廢止中心匯率制度(1989 年)。

(1) 廢止「利率管理條例」(1985 年):提高金融機構訂定存款利率之彈性,以增進資金配置效率。
(2) 廢止訂定銀行業各種存款最高利率及核定放款利率幅度之決定,銀行自訂利率水準(1989 年):取消存放款利率上下限管制,正式邁入利率自由化時期。
(3) 廢止「貨幣市場定價辦法」及「短期票券買賣報價要點」(1989年):貨幣市場利率不再受上、下限之規範。:
 開放新銀行設立: 放寬本國銀行設立分行之條件與家數(1984 年)

成立「行政院公營事業民營化推動專案小組」(1989 年)公營事業民營化的政策在經革會時代就已有所宣示,1989 年7月成立「行政院公營事業民營化推動專案小組」,8 月提出第一
批19 家優先民營化的公營事業名單;1990 年增列陽明海運、交銀、農銀;1991 年交通部提出「中華電信公司草案」,預備將電信局部分業務移轉民營。

對外投資自由化:修訂「對外投資及技術合作審核處理辦法」(1985 年)
我國在經濟發展初期,以吸收外國資本前來投資為主,對外投資較少。惟自1980 年代以降,由於國內工資上漲,生產成本提高,部分勞力密集產業逐漸喪失國際競爭力,且國內累積資本逐漸充裕,對外投資漸增。1985 年修訂「對外投資及技術合作審核處理辦法」,放寬對外投資標準,資本額由新台幣5,000 萬元降至2,000 萬元。

解除貿易保護管制、推進貿易自由化: 促成臺灣貿易自由化的原因,主要為:經濟失衡的壓力、美國加速要求市場開放的壓力、民主化後私人企業集團要求參與市場的力量,以及為打破外交上孤立狀態,政府積極加入國際經貿組織的推力。
在外匯自由化、放寬進出口限制後,我國所剩之貿易保護工具以關稅為主。臺灣關稅保護主要為扶持本國工業發展,故在1987年以前,我國平均名目關稅均在20%以上(平均實質關稅率為7.02%),1988 年大幅降至12.1%(實質關稅率為5.76%),此後並逐年調降,入會前一年(2001)關稅收入佔賦稅收入降至7.4%,占GDP比例更降至1%以下,顯示貿易自由化之成效。

1980 年以前,臺灣的金融機構幾乎全為公營,利率全由政府決定。1985 年取消利率管制,實施基本利率制度,減少部必要的干預,增進資金配置效率,幫助市場經濟成形。1989 年修訂「銀行法」,取消存放款利率上下限管制,正式邁入利率自由化時期。
此外,外匯自由化也是開啟我國金融業接軌國際化的重要關鍵。1987 年全面實施新外匯制度,開啟外匯自由化之起點,央行在外匯市場已由過去主動引導的地位,轉變為退居幕後的腳色,只有在匯率異常波動時才會進場干預,外匯交易交由市場機制決定。透過私部門對外匯的持有,我國銀行間外匯交易金額漸增,與外匯有關的各項金融商品與業務也因此得到較佳的發展機會,後續受到正面影響的業務包括:境外金融市場(國際金融業務分行

公營事業民營化、提高營運績效: 我國公營事業具有階段性任務,在過去,公營事業具有引導
國內經濟發展、執行政府政策、增加政府收入、配合國防發展等功能,但1970 年代以後,民間企業扮演腳色日益重要,其人才運用、管理效率均逐漸凌駕公營事業之上。
1978 年,5 位中研院院士(蔣碩傑、邢慕寰、顧應昌、鄒至莊、費景漢)於針對當前經濟問題提出6 項建議,其中包括改善公營企業,使其經營方式與民營企業相仿,原因是公營事業及政府投資事業已占國家總投資的50%以上,影響經濟成長。

。1981 年當時的行政院院長孫運璿,指示經建會會同相關部門檢討公營事業的民營化。1989 年行政院公營事業民營化推動專案小組成立,正式啟動公營事業民營化工作。迄2010 年底止,計完成38 家事業民營化,結束營業17 家;目前尚有經濟部所屬事業5 家(台電、中油、
漢翔、台糖及台水)、財政部所屬事業1 家(臺灣菸酒公司)及交通部所屬2 家(臺灣鐵路管理局及中華郵政公司)等8 家列於推動名單。

1984 年時任行政院院長俞國華提出「自由化、國際化、制度化」政策,採取放寬外匯管制、廢止對外投資廠商財務標準限制等措施,開啟台商對外投資風潮]

Cross-strait economic exchanges and service -oriented industry (1990s)
Taiwan focused on high-tech industries and allowed new entrants into most of its service sector. Taiwanese economy became more service industry-oriented. Increasing economic exchanges with mainland China resulted in huge trade surplus.
大陸中共當局於1979 年實施經濟改革開放政策,我政府亦於1987 年正式開放兩岸民間交流,1992 年鄧小平南巡講話,採取積極開放政策後,兩岸經貿日趨熱絡,對臺灣產業發展已產生深遠影響。銀行民營化
1996 年前總統李登輝宣布「戒急用忍」後,對兩岸經貿往來採取一套管制措施;至2000 年首次政權輪替,民進黨執政不僅以「意識型態」治國,更將經發會建議的「積極開放、有效管理」,改為「積極管理、有效開放」的「鎖國政策」。台商不得不以各種方式迂迴前往大陸投資,而且在大陸經濟快速發展過程中,台商亦隨著壯大,並帶動臺灣對大陸出口的快速成長,自2000 年對大陸出口(包括香港)超過對美國出口成為臺灣第一大出口對象。而自大陸進口則在層層限制下,進展有限,因此對大陸貿易每年都有鉅額出超
尤其在1992 年後,台商到大陸投資極為踴躍

1993 年行政院為面對國內外經濟情勢的變化,實施「振興經濟方案」,其中目標有二:一為促進產業升級,二為建設臺灣成為亞太營運中心,後者係當時研擬該方案的經建會主委蕭萬
長接受筆者的建議納入,其基本精神在以臺灣為根據地吸引跨國企業到臺灣投資或策略聯盟,共同到大陸投資及技術合作,進軍世界市場,以凸顯臺灣在亞太地區經濟整合中扮演關鍵角色,同時可以在先進國家與開發中國家間,擔負承先啟後的「中繼者」角色。此一政策於1995 年公布整套實施方案後,在不到一年間,即有多家跨國企業到臺灣與當地企業策略聯盟,等待兩岸直航後,到大陸投資,充分發揮臺灣在資本、技術、行銷以及地理區位的優勢。此「亞太營運中心」政策如能順利推動,不僅可以開拓臺灣經濟新局,亦可促進大陸經濟進一步發展,為開創中國人世紀創造契機。但不幸的是,1996 年李登輝祭出「戒急用忍」政策,訂定限制臺灣與大陸經貿合作的條款,致使此極具前瞻性的「亞太營運中心」政策胎

經濟自由化時期 : 1990年代〜
金融自由化 : 開放民間設立銀行 (1990/91年共有16家新商業銀行成立),打破公營銀行獨霸金融市場的局面
—  開放新設信用合作社,並得以改制為商業銀行 (1994);外國銀行來台設立分行或辦事處的限制也解除
開放設立票券金融公司 (1994); 同時開放民間設立保險公司, 公營事業的陸續民營化
電信自由化 : 開放民間電信公司的成立
1990 年代推動亞太營運中心與發展資訊產業:工資上漲雖導致勞力密集產業外移,但憑藉高素質的人力資源,以及分工完整的產業群聚,資訊科技產業(IT) 蓬勃發展,帶動台灣工業順利轉型、升級,由過去的「雨傘王國」、「玩具王國」蛻變成「資訊王國」。1993 年,監視器、主機板、影像掃描器等資訊產品,在全球市場占有率高達50% 以上,位居全球第一;1995 年台灣資訊產業硬體產值躍居全球第三,成為高科技產業全球分工體中不可缺少的一環。此外,為強化台灣全球運籌地位與產業水準,1995年政府積極推動「發展台灣成為亞太營運中心計畫」,發展製造、轉運及專業服務等專業營運中心。
1990s: 推動亞太營運中心與發展資訊產業: ‧ 推動「國建六年計畫」,厚實基礎建設 ‧ 以BOT 方式,鼓勵民間參與公共建設‧ 推動電信自由化 ‧ 推動臺灣工業轉型,發展成為資訊王國
‧ 發展臺灣成為亞太營運中心
1990 年代台灣經濟逐漸邁入成熟階段,1992 年台灣平均每人國民生產毛額突破1 萬美元,為滿足國民對生活品質改善的期盼,政府積極推動捷運、高快速公路與環保建設等公共投資,並積極改善經濟體質;此一時期,雖遭逢亞洲金融風暴,台灣平均每年經濟成長率仍達6.3%。CPI 及WPI 平均上漲率僅為2.9% 及0.3%。
1990s: 台灣積極經濟自由化、國際化,加以中國等勞動成本低廉的國家加入全球生產體系,生產成本相對低廉,物價持續維持穩定水準
1991 年起推動「國家建設六年計畫」,大幅擴建電力、航空、環保、醫療保健等各項公共建設。為減輕財政負擔, 1994 年公布「獎勵民間參與交通建設條例」,獎勵民間參與各項公共建設計畫,並以BOT( 興建-營運-移轉) 模式興建台灣高速鐵路。
1996 年開始開放大學設立,
1995 年3 月,政府推動全民健康保險
1999 年1 月實施勞工失業保險給付
在1990年代將大規模的國公營事業私有化,並展開經濟自由化的轉型工程,Neo-liberalism and Taiwan's Privatization Policy

1990 年1 月1 日,臺灣依關稅暨貿易總協定(General Agreement  on Tariffs and Trade, GATT)第33 條規定,以「臺灣、澎湖、金門及馬祖個別關稅領域」名義,正式向GATT 秘書處提出入會申請。1992 年起因GATT 正式受理臺灣加入GATT 申請案,為考量入會談判籌碼運用,暫停止單方面的關稅減讓,至1995 年7 月,為配合「亞太營運中心」計畫之推展,再度調降關稅,至2002 年臺灣正式成為WTO 會員國前,陸續均有調降措施,2002 年因應入會,大幅調降5,301 項產品關稅

(1) 金融業之開放:隨著經濟發展,服務業在整體經濟的比重逐漸提高,外商積極爭取進入我國服務業市場。
I. 開放外國券商來台設立分公司,開放外國專業投資機構投資我股市(1990 年)。
II. 重新開放外人投資新設商業銀行,並開放外商保險公司來台設立子公司,以及開放美國以外保險公司來台設分公司(1994 年):上述三個特許市場的開放都是先開放外商參與,其後再開放國內企業參與。

交通部公佈「民用航空運輸業申請設立,增闢航線,購機執行要點」(1987 年):開放國內航空事業。


電信業:1994 年開始美國政府對臺灣電信市場的開放施壓,此時烏拉圭回合已對電信市場的開放達成基本共識,且臺灣電信局的大哥大門號出現嚴重供不應求現象,顯示市場已進入高度成長期。1995 年當時的行政院院長連戰提出「亞太營運中心」主張,推動服務業的自由化,並揭示建立臺灣為「亞太電信中心」的目標。
I. 修正「電信法」1996 年:依序開放民間業者參與各項電信業務,開啟臺灣電信市場的新紀元。

成立專業外匯經紀商(1994 年)。

行政院通過「商業銀行設立標準」(1990 年)
1987 年宣告解除戒嚴,臺灣內部面臨民主運動升高、立法院興起一股要求自由化的力量;對外則遭受來自美國開放金融市場之要求。1989 年立法院三讀通過銀行法修正案,1990年行政院通過「商業銀行設立標準」,同年財政部宣布自該年10 月12 日起六個月內,受理新銀行申請。1991 年中,財政部公布申請核准的15 家新銀行名單,1992 年再核准1家,共16 家新設銀行。
(3) 放寬外國銀行設立分行及代表人辦事處之條件,並刪除外國銀行增設分行之家數與地點限制(1994 年)

立法院通過「公營事業移轉民營條例」修正案(1991 年)「公營事業移轉民營條例」修正案為民營化重要法源依據,其施行細則於1992 年公布實施,對於公營事業移轉民營的方式、
從業人員的安排與補償均有明文規定。由於公營事業民營化過程遭遇員工抗拒、股票市場不振等因素干擾,致進度緩慢。政府為落實民營化政策,於1993 年提出的「振興經濟方案」中,規定各公營事業主管機關須於3 個月內訂出民營化時間表。

開放外國券商來台設立分公司,開放外國專業投資機構投資我國股市(1990 年)
(3) 重新開放外人投資新設商業銀行,放寬外商設立分行資格(1994 年)
(4) 開放外商保險公司來台設立子公司,開放美國以外保險公司來台設分公司(1994 年)
(5) 允許世界500 大以內國際知名銀行直接來我國設立國際金融業務分行(OBU)(1995 年)


1991 年15 家新銀行設立,對國內金融發展影響深遠。過去金融機構業務單純,競爭也少,鄉鎮間銀行設立亦有限,但隨著客觀環境的轉變,銀行業務競爭白熱化,消費者擁有更多金融商品與服務項目可以選擇,工商界亦可爭取到更靈活充裕的資金調度。

Innovation/R&D and increasing cross-strait economic exchanges (2000s─)
Taiwan joined the World Trade Organization in 2002 and faced pressure of globalization. With the arrival of the knowledge-based economy, Taiwan promoted innovation and R&D. Taiwan signed (1) free trade and economic partnership agreements with other countries in Asia, (2)Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) in 2010 and the Cross-Strait Service Trade Agreement (CSSTA) in 2013 with China.
2000 年政權輪替,民進黨執政在無預警情況下,突宣布已興建三分之一的第四核能發電廠(簡稱核四)停建,震驚海內外,嚴重衝擊臺灣經濟。加以2001 年網路泡沫破滅,致使臺灣淪為50 年來首次經濟負成長。當時陳水扁總統為挽救此劣勢,邀朝野代表及產學界成立經發會,共分五組謀求對策。其中最關鍵重要的是兩岸組所獲得的「共識」,如下:
但實際上,以上共識很遺憾一直到第二次政黨輪替後才落實執行,拖延了8 年,致經濟一蹶不振,怎不讓人嘆惜!

2002 年我國成為WTO 第144個會員國,走入全球化浪潮。
由於自由貿易協定屬WTO Plus(市場開放程度較高),不屬於協定的簽署國無法享有較優惠之待遇。為提升我國在國際貿易及投資上與他國競爭優勢,同時協助我國企業佈局全球,推動洽簽FTA已成為我國加入WTO 之後重要的經貿工作。

我國加入WTO 入會承諾(2002)
1. 關稅減讓:2000 年整體平均名目關稅率為8.20%,入會第1 年降至7.28%,降稅完畢時為5.54%,降幅為32.44%,降稅項目計4,491 項。
2. 零對零方案(計897 項):其中立即實施為藥品(141 項);實施期 年包括:營建設備(67 項)、醫療器材(78 項)、傢俱(24 項) 、農業機械(30 項)、烈酒(2 項);實施期間為8 年:啤酒(1 項);
實施期間為10 年:鋼鐵(353 項)、紙(166 項) 、玩具(35 項)。
3. 化學品一致性方案:共計1405 項;降稅期程為入會後第9 年。
4. 服務業市場開放承諾
(1) 水平承諾:
— 證券投資:將得投資國內股市者,由專業投資機構擴大至一般法人及自然人; 將每一外國投資人購買單一上市公司股份總額,由不得超過該公司已發行股份總額的百分之五,放寬為百分之十五; 將全體外國投資人購買單一上市公司股票總額,由不得超過該公司已發行股份總額的百分之十,放寬為百分之三十。2000 年底前取消外人投資股市之比例限制。
— 人員進出及停留相關規定:跨國企業內部調動人員可進入及停留三年,並可申請展延,每次一年,且展延次數無限制;商業訪客停留期間由六十天延長為九十天;國內無營業處所之外國企業,其受僱者得為履行合約來台,停留期間不得超過九十天或契約所訂期間。
(2) 特定承諾:

1. 台巴(巴拿馬)FTA:2003 年8 月21 日簽署,2004 年1 月1 日生效。
2. 台瓜(瓜地馬拉)FTA:2005 年9 月22 日簽署,2006 年7 月1 日生效。
3. 台尼(尼加拉瓜)FTA:2006 年6 月16 日簽署,2008 年1 月1 日生效。
4. 台薩(薩爾瓦多)宏(宏都拉斯)FTA:2007 年5 月7 日簽署,2008年3 月1 日台薩FTA 生效;2008 年7 月15 日台宏FTA 生效。
5. 兩岸經濟合作架構協議(ECFA):2010 年6 月29 日簽署,2010年9 月12 日生效。

1. 推動「產險市場費率自由化時程計畫」(2002 年):為避免產險業者之間的惡性競爭破壞市場秩序,財政部分三階段逐步鬆綁費率及商品的管制。
2. 放寬保險國外投資上限由20%至35%(2003 年)。
3. 放寬保險國外投資上限自35%提高至45%(2007 年)。
4. 公布「金融消費者保護法」(2011 年):有助金融巿場自由化下,平衡金融業者和一般投資人或消費者之間存在極度地資訊不對等的情況。
5. 開放銀行業國際金融業務分行(OBU)可辦理人民幣業務(2011年):未來國內銀行不僅可以吸收人民幣存款,也可透過人民幣進行授信、押匯與匯款等金融活動,不僅擴大OBU 與海外分行的營業空間,有助國內銀行未來透過人民幣進行兩岸貿易結算業務。

台灣加入WTO 的減讓承諾:一、 關稅調降, 二、減少農工產品管制 (一)取消農產品進口限制(稻米除外)(二)開放汽車市場(至2011年完全取消數量管制) (三)開放菸酒市場(零對零方案)三.開放服務業市場(一)律師、會計師等專業服務(二)金融、保險、證券期貨
2000~2012產業再造與全球連結: 2000年起政府揭櫫「知識化、永續化、公義化」三大理念,全力投資人才、研發創新、運籌通路與生活環境外,亦發展半導體、影像顯示、生物科技及數位內容等產業,以提升產業創新能力與國民生活品質;更於2002年1月1日正式成為WTO的
2008年金融海嘯過後,為掌握時代變動新契機並強化經濟體質,政府提出「黃金十年 國家願景」計畫,以創新、開放及調結構三大關鍵驅動力,打造黃金十年成長途徑,在繁榮、和諧、永續的總目標之下,推動活力經濟、公義社會、廉能政府、優質文教、永續環境、全面建設、和平兩岸、友善國際等八大願景、31項施政主軸,全力開展國力推升工程;同時,政府也透過促進投資、強化建設、產業再造與全球連結等四方面,以推升經濟成長動能。
一、 在促進投資方面,遺贈稅由50%調降至10%、營所稅由25%降至17%,並鬆綁財經法規,打造更自由、更有效率的經商環境;擴大國際招商、加強推動台商回台投資、針對符合自有
二、 在強化建設方面,推動「愛台12項建設」、「振興經濟擴大公共建設投資計畫」,營造良好的投資與生活環境;並積極創新公共建設財源,透過活化國有資產等方式,以籌措國家重要建設財源。
三、 在產業再造方面,推動生物科技、觀光旅遊等六大新興產業,以及雲端運算、智慧電動車等4項新興智慧型產業,並發展國際醫療、都市更新等十大重點服務業;推動「三業四化」重點策略(製造業服務化、服務業科技化與國際化、傳統產業特色化),帶動產業再躍升;以及推動「傳統產業維新方案」,型塑創新高值、安全安心、永續生態的傳統產業,為傳統產業注入新的成長驅動因素。
四、 在全球連結方面,大幅改善兩岸關係,包括:開放與中國大陸直航、簽署「海峽兩岸經濟合作架構協議」(ECFA)、「海峽兩岸投資保障和促進協議」、「海峽兩岸服務貿易協議」
2000s: 產業再造與全球連結: ‧ 推動「黃金十年 國家願景」計畫,規劃推動活力經濟、公義社會、廉能政府、優質文教、永續環境、全面建設、和平兩岸、友善國際八大願景、31 項施政主軸,打造繁榮、和諧、永續的黃金十年‧ 促進投資,調降遺贈稅、營所稅,並鬆綁財經法規;加強推動台商回台投資及「自由經濟示範區」,打造具競爭力投資環境‧ 強化建設,推動「愛台12 建設」、「振興經濟擴大公共建設投資計畫」,並積極創新公共建設財源、活化
國有資產,以籌措國家重要建設財源‧ 產業再造,發展六大新興產業,推動「三業四化」重點策略及「傳統產業維新方案」‧ 全球連結,與中國大陸簽署「海峽兩岸經濟合作架構協議(ECFA)」、「海峽兩岸投資保障和促進協議」、「海峽兩岸服務貿易協議」等;融入區域整合,積極與主要貿易夥伴洽簽經濟合作協議(ECA)
2000 至2009 年先後遭逢2001 年全球資訊產業泡沫化及美國911 恐怖攻擊事件、2003年SARS 疫情蔓延,以及2008 年全球金融海嘯影響,經濟成長趨緩,此一時期平均每年經濟成長率為3.4%。
2010 至2012 年:2010 年景氣快速復甦,經濟成長率達10.76%; 惟2011 及2012 年因受歐債危機延燒、美國經濟復甦未如預期及新興國家成長減緩等影響,整體成長力道放緩,經濟成長率分別為4.07% 及1.32%
1999 年以前美國一直是台灣最大市場,但隨著兩岸經貿關係的逐漸密切,中國大陸(包括香港)已取代美國成為台灣最大出口市場
2004 年推動「新十大建設」,進行文化、科技等攸關民眾福祉與國家競爭力之公共建設投資計畫。
2008 年台灣遭受全球金融風暴嚴峻挑戰,面臨結構轉型之關鍵時刻,加以考量全球氣候變遷加劇,節能減碳已蔚為風潮,亟需加強符合長期發展需求之基礎建設,政府爰於2009 年集中
公共建設資源,優先推動「愛台12 建設」,計畫以2009 至2016 年計8 年為期,投資新台幣3.99 兆元,推動包括全島便捷交通網、智慧台灣、產業創新走廊、綠色造林、防洪治水等12 項基礎建設,帶動台灣新一波經濟成長。
與中國大陸完成簽署「海峽兩岸服務貿易協議」(2013 年6 月),以及政府積極推動金融、保險等現代化服務業出口下,金融服務業將可望擴大市場規模、提升國際競爭力。
2002 年5 月及2004 年6 月分別制定「就業保險法」與「勞工退休金條例」,進一步強化勞工權益保障
2008 年10月,國民年金制度正式上路
2009 年1 月實施「勞保年金」,台灣的社會安全體系正式邁向「雙年金保險制度」新里程。2011 年7 月社會救助新制正式實施
2012年1 月推動二代健保,完善全民健康保險機制。
政府於2012 年11月成立「年金制度改革小組」,積極推動「勞保年金制度」及「軍公教退
撫制度」等年金制度改革,並於2013年4 月啟動修法程序
積極推動「自由經濟示範區」,第1 階段先以現行六海一空自貿港區為核心,優先選出智慧運籌、國際醫療、農業加值與產業合作等4 類產業活動,結合鄰近園區推動,未來經檢討後具發

在強化建設方面,我們將持續推動愛台12 項建設,包括全島便捷交通網、高雄港市再造、中部高科技產業新聚落、桃園國際航空城、智慧台灣、產業創新走廊等12 項建設,營造良好的

在產業再造方面,我們將積極推動三業四化,包含傳統產業特色化、製造業服務化、服務業科技化與國際化,促進產業結構多元發展;推動傳統產業維新,針對具生產利基之傳統產業,注入工業設計、環保綠能、文創等元素,提升傳統產業附加價值;利用台灣在人力、創意、區位、ICT 等優勢,強化旅遊、文化休閒等傳統服務,以及金融、保險、電腦與資訊、專利等現代化服務業的輸出。


中央政府遷臺之初沒有預算制度,賣黃金,寫條子拿錢,1950 年嚴家淦初任財政部長認為沒有預算制度,國家建設無從談起,乃向先總統蔣中正陳詞分析利弊,詳述政府預算制度的重要性與緊迫性,並面請蔣中正,以後需款也按預算支用,以樹立預算的權威。蔣中正總統從善如流竟然同意,預算制度才得以建立。
政府曾進行多次賦稅改革,而其中以1967 年行政院成立的賦改革委員會,請旅美學人劉大中博士主持,進行的全面性賦稅改革,最具成效,對日後經濟發展及財政收支的改善,助益甚大。
中央銀行於1961 年7 月1 日在臺復業,之前係由臺灣銀行代理部分央行業務。央行復業後,完全負起金融調節,穩定經濟,並輔助經濟發展的任務。
1975 年公布《新銀行法》,對銀行種類及業務均有明確劃分,即採取長短期金融劃分原則,規定商業銀行以提供短期信用為主要任務,各種專業銀行則以提供中長期信用或特定部門的中長期信用為主要業務。